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Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: the evidence from stable isotopes.
TLDR
The isotope evidence overwhelmingly points to the Neanderthals behaving as top-level carnivores, obtaining almost all of their dietary protein from animal sources, and reinforces current taphonomic assessments of associated faunal elements and makes it unlikely that the Neanderthal were acquiring animal protein principally through scavenging.
Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals.
TLDR
These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe.
The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe
TLDR
It is shown that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.
Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G(1) and Velika Pecína late Pleistocene hominid remains.
TLDR
New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pecina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals.
The Middle/Upper Paleolithic interface and the relationship of Neanderthals and early modern humans in the Hrvatsko Zagorje, Croatia.
TLDR
Results of these analyses are used to argue that the combination of Middle and Upper Paleolithic elements in the upper G complex at Vindija is not necessarily the result of geological mixing but may well represent a natural cultural assemblage.
Upper Paleolithic Occupation Levels and Late-Occurring Neandertal at Vindija Cave (Croatia) in the Context of Central Europe and the Balkans
  • I. Karavanić
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Journal of Anthropological Research
  • 1 April 1995
This paper presents the results obtained by analysis of Upper Paleolithic occupation levels in Vindija Cave, northwestern Croatia. Typological analyses of stone and bone tools have been carried out.
Osteocalcin protein sequences of Neanderthals and modern primates.
TLDR
It is suggested that the absence of hydroxylation of Pro-9 in Pan, Pongo, and Homo may reflect response to a selective pressure related to a decline in vitamin C in the diet during omnivorous dietary adaptation, either independently or through the common ancestor of these species.
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