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The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions.
TLDR
The authors discuss the etymology and strategy behind the use of endophenotypes in neuropsychiatric research and, more generally, in research on other diseases with complex genetics. Expand
Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study.
TLDR
The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Expand
Socioeconomic Status Modifies Heritability of IQ in Young Children
TLDR
Results demonstrate that the proportions of IQ variance attributable to genes and environment vary nonlinearly with SES, and suggest that in impoverished families, 60% of the variance in IQ is accounted for by the shared environment, and the contribution of genes is close to zero; in affluent families, the result is almost exactly the reverse. Expand
Schizophrenia Genesis: The Origins of Madness
'The book will appeal to a variety of readers. The history of the illness, its diagnoses, epidemiology, demography, inheritance and environmental stresses would be of general interest. The anguishedExpand
Twin studies of schizophrenia: from bow-and-arrow concordances to star wars Mx and functional genomics.
TLDR
The five newest studies since 1995 from Europe and Japan have confirmed earlier findings on the genetic basis of clinical heterogeneity within schizophrenia and provided further insights into non-inherited factors that contribute to the multifactorial etiology of this disorder. Expand
Toward Constructing an Endophenotype Strategy for Bipolar Disorders
TLDR
A strategy constructed to improve the phenotypic definition of bipolar disorder by elucidating candidate endophenotypes is presented and studies to evaluate candidateEndophenotypes with respect to specificity, heritability, temporal stability, and prevalence in unaffected relatives are encouraged. Expand
Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders: the Maudsley twin psychosis series.
TLDR
A substantial genetic contribution to variance in liability was confirmed for the major diagnostic categories except Research Diagnostic Criteria depressive psychosis and unspecified functional psychosis, where familial transmission was confirmed, but the relative contribution of genetic and common environmental factors was unclear. Expand
Psychiatric endophenotypes and the development of valid animal models
TLDR
There exists a need for increased collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists, the result of which should be to improve diagnosis, classification and treatment on one end and to increase the construct relevance of model organisms on the other. Expand
Deconstructing schizophrenia: an overview of the use of endophenotypes in order to understand a complex disorder.
TLDR
The challenges that abound in genetic research of schizophrenia, including issues in ascertainment, epistasis, ethnic diversity, and the potentially normalizing effects of second-generation antipsychotic medications on neurocognitive and neurophysiological measures are discussed. Expand
A polygenic theory of schizophrenia.
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