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Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin.
Although the status of Crinoidea (sea lilies and featherstars) as sister group to all other living echinoderms is well-established, relationships among crinoids, particularly extant forms, areExpand
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Madagascar Holothurie SA: The first trade company based on sea cucumber aquaculture in Madagascar
spread activity (Laroche and Ramananarivo 1995; Conand et al. 1997; Rasolofonirina and Conand 1998; McVean et al. 2005) and natural populations are currently overexploited (Conand 1998; Conand et al.Expand
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Problems related to the farming of Holothuria scabra (Jaeger 1833)
Different problems related to Holothuria scabra farming were observed at the sea cucumber aquaculture project Madagascar Holothurie S.A. (Toliara, Madagascar). In this paper, those problems areExpand
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Mitochondrial genome and nuclear sequence data support myzostomida as part of the annelid radiation.
The echinoderm symbionts Myzostomida are marine worms that show an enigmatic lophotrochozoan body plan. Historically, their phylogenetic origins were obscured due to disagreement about whichExpand
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Myzostomida: a link between trochozoans and flatworms?
Myzostomids are obligate symbiotic invertebrates associated with echinoderms with a fossil record that extends to the Ordovician period. Due to their long history as host–specific symbionts,Expand
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On the phylogenetic position of Myzostomida: can 77 genes get it wrong?
BackgroundPhylogenomic analyses recently became popular to address questions about deep metazoan phylogeny. Ribosomal proteins (RP) dominate many of these analyses or are, in some cases, the onlyExpand
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Review of saponin diversity in sea cucumbers belonging to the family Holothuriidae
Saponins are secondary metabolites produced by holothurians. Structurally, they are triterpene glycosides that play an important role in chemical defense and possess a wide spectrum ofExpand
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When a repellent becomes an attractant: harmful saponins are kairomones attracting the symbiotic Harlequin crab
Marine organisms have developed a high diversity of chemical defences in order to avoid predators and parasites. In sea cucumbers, saponins function as repellents and many species produce theseExpand
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Parasites and biotic diseases in field and cultivated sea cucumbers
Amongst echinoderms, the Holothuroidea represents the class that is the most infested by parasites. Parasites of holothuroids are Bacteria, Protozoa and Metazoa. There are about 150 species ofExpand
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Life cycle and mode of infestation of Myzostoma cirriferum (Annelida): a symbiotic myzostomid of the comatulid crinoid Antedon bifida (Echinodermata)
Eight different stages succeed one another in the life cycle of the myzostomid Myzostoma cirriferum, viz, the embryonic stage, 4 larval stages, and 3 postmetamorphic stages. Fertilization isExpand
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