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Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists
Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the dominant statistical approach in biology, although it has many, frequently unappreciated, problems. Most importantly, NHST does not provide us withExpand
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Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research
animals used (i.e., species/strain, sex, and age/weight). Most of the papers surveyed did not report using randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%) to reduce bias in animal selection and outcomeExpand
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Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours
Abstract There is a growing body of data on avian eyes, including measurements of visual pigment and oil droplet spectral absorption, and of receptor densities and their distributions across theExpand
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Visual pigments, oil droplets, ocular media and cone photoreceptor distribution in two species of passerine bird: the blue tit (Parus caeruleus L.) and the blackbird (Turdus merula L.)
Abstract The spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors of the blue tit (Parus caeruleus) and blackbird (Turdus merula) were investigated using microspectrophotometry. TheExpand
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Using digital photography to study animal coloration
In understanding how visual signals function, quantifying the components of those patterns is vital. With the ever- increasing power and availability of digital photography, many studies areExpand
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Plumage Reflectance and the Objective Assessment of Avian Sexual Dichromatism
Assessment of color using human vision (or standards based thereon) is central to tests of many evolutionary hypotheses. Yet fundamental differences in color vision between humans and other animalsExpand
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The analysis of fluctuating asymmetry
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Improving bioscience research reporting: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research.
2 Provide an accurate summary of the background, res principal findings, and conclusions of the study.
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The ecological costs of avian fat storage.
  • M. Witter, I. Cuthill
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society…
  • 29 April 1993
Avian fat storage is associated with both benefits and costs. Although the benefits of maintaining higher energetic reserves have long been considered, the associated costs have received far lessExpand
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Disruptive coloration and background pattern matching
Effective camouflage renders a target indistinguishable from irrelevant background objects. Two interrelated but logically distinct mechanisms for this are background pattern matching (crypsis) andExpand
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