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Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials.
OBJECTIVE To determine if inadequate approaches to randomized controlled trial design and execution are associated with evidence of bias in estimating treatment effects. DESIGN An observationalExpand
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Avoidable waste in the production and reporting of research evidence
“Research results should be easily accessible to people who need to make decisions about their own health... Why was I forced to make my decision knowing that information was somewhere but notExpand
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The Cochrane Collaboration: Preparing, Maintaining, and Disseminating Systematic Reviews of the Effects of Health Care
  • I. Chalmers
  • Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1 December 1993
In an influential book published more than twenty years ago, Archie Cochrane drew attention to our great collective ignorance about the effects of health care, and explained how evidence fromExpand
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A Brief History of Research Synthesis
Science is supposed to be cumulative, but scientists only rarely cumulate evidence scientifically. This means that users of research evidence have to cope with a plethora of reports of individualExpand
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How to increase value and reduce waste when research priorities are set
The increase in annual global investment in biomedical research--reaching US$240 billion in 2010--has resulted in important health dividends for patients. Expand
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Seventy-Five Trials and Eleven Systematic Reviews a Day: How Will We Ever Keep Up?
Hilda Bastian and colleagues examine the extent to which critical summaries of clinical trials can be used by health professionals and the public.
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Underreporting research is scientific misconduct.
Substantial numbers of clinical trials are never reported in print, and among those that are, many are not reported in sufficient detail to enable judgments to be made about the validity of theirExpand
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Trying to do more Good than Harm in Policy and Practice: The Role of Rigorous, Transparent, Up-to-Date Evaluations
Because professionals sometimes do more harm than good when they intervene in the lives of other people, their policies and practices should be informed by rigorous, transparent, up-to-dateExpand
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The Campbell Collaboration Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register (C2-SPECTR) to Facilitate the Preparation and Maintenance of Systematic Reviews of Social and
Systematic reviews of relevant controlled experiments are required to set the results of individual studies in proper context, and to assess 'what works' in particular areas of social, psychologicalExpand
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