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Concussion in Professional Football: Location and Direction of Helmet Impacts—Part 2
TLDR
The location, direction, and severity of helmet impacts causing concussion in the National Football League have been defined from analysis of game video and laboratory reconstruction and define the circumstances in which helmets need to reduce head injury risks in professional football.
Concussion in Professional Football: Epidemiological Features of Game Injuries and Review of the Literature—Part 3
TLDR
The professional football players most vulnerable to concussions are quarterbacks, wide receivers, and defensive secondaries, and these players return to play within 1 day, and symptoms resolved in a short time in the vast majority of cases.
Twelve Years of National Football League Concussion Data
TLDR
The most recent 6 years of NFL concussion data show a remarkable similarity to the earlier period, however, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of players returning to the same game, and players were held out of play longer.
Concussion in Professional Football: Reconstruction of Game Impacts and Injuries
TLDR
Concussion occurs with considerable head impact velocity and velocity changes in professional football, and current National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment standards primarily address impacts to the periphery and crown of the helmet, whereas players are experiencing injuries in hits to the facemask, side, and back of the Helmet.
Concussion in Professional Football: Brain Responses by Finite Element Analysis: Part 9
TLDR
This study compares brain responses with physician determined signs and symptoms of concussion to investigate tissue-level injury mechanisms and showed the largest brain deformations occurred after the primary head acceleration.
Concussion in Professional Football: Comparison with Boxing Head Impacts—Part 10
TLDR
Impact biomechanics from boxing punches causing translational and rotational head acceleration shows that the greatest strain is in the midbrain late in the exposure, after the primary impact acceleration in boxing and football.
Is There Chronic Brain Damage in Retired NFL Players? Neuroradiology, Neuropsychology, and Neurology Examinations of 45 Retired Players
TLDR
MRI lesions and neuropsychological impairments were found in some players; however, the majority of retired NFL players had no clinical signs of chronic brain damage, reconciling with the prevailing view that a career in football frequently results in chronic brainDamage.
Concussion in Professional Football: Recovery of NFL and High School Athletes Assessed by Computerized Neuropsychological Testing—Part 12
TLDR
Computer-based neuropsychological testing was used within the overall medical evaluation and care of NFL athletes and NFL players did not demonstrate decrements in Neuropsychological performance beyond one week of injury.
Concussion in Professional Football: Neuropsychological Testing—Part 6
TLDR
The data show that MTBI in this population is characterized by a rapid return of neuropsychological function in the days after injury, and Neuropsychological testing is used within the overall medical evaluation and care of NFL athletes.
Concussion in Professional Football: Injuries Involving 7 or More Days Out—Part 5
TLDR
The most vulnerable players for 7+ days out with concussion were quarterbacks and the secondary in professional football, and a greater fraction were given drug or medical therapies with prolonged days out.
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