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A European carotenoid database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study
A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid database with information on α- and β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin was prepared and used to compare the carotenoid intakes inExpand
Serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A, E, and C in control subjects from five European countries.
High intakes of fruits and vegetables, or high circulating levels of their biomarkers (carotenoids, vitamins C and E), have been associated with a relatively low incidence of cardiovascular disease,Expand
Reference values for retinol, tocopherol, and main carotenoids in serum of control and insulin-dependent diabetic Spanish subjects.
To establish reference ranges for use in clinical and epidemiological studies, we determined concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein,Expand
Carotenoid composition in raw and cooked Spanish vegetables
An HPLC study of 18 of the fresh vegetables (raw and coolied) most frequently consumed in Spain was done to determine their carotenoid composition. The results are grouped according to the color ofExpand
Major fruit and vegetable contributors to the main serum carotenoids in the Spanish diet.
OBJECTIVE To identify the main sources of serum carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene) among the fruits and vegetables in the Spanish diet,Expand
Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.
We report the results of a study on the influence of season and sex on serum concentrations of six carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol, as determined by reversed-phase HPLC. The subjects wereExpand
Lutein, but not alpha-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-y double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.
OBJECTIVE We investigated the effect of long-term antioxidant supplementation (lutein and alpha-tocopherol) on serum levels and visual performance in patients with cataracts. METHODS SeventeenExpand
A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses.
Increased levels of oxidative stress have been implicated in tissue damage and the development of chronic diseases, and dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of oxidative tissue damage. As part ofExpand
Lutein ester in serum after lutein supplementation in human subjects.
Lutein, one of the major carotenoids present in serum, is also widely consumed by most populations. For the purpose of testing the potential health benefits of several carotenoids, lutein wasExpand
Lutein in patients with cataracts and age-related macular degeneration : a long-term supplementation study
Lutein, a non-provitamin A xanthophyll, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables frequently consumed. In human serum, lutein is transported by lipoproteins and selectively accumulated inExpand