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BACKGROUND A thorough understanding of the topographical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve and the cervical plexus branches is a basic prerequisite for positive results when operating on the neck. OBJECTIVE To give an exact description of the topographical and surgical anatomy of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) and the trapezius branches of the(More)
HYPOTHESIS The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap seems to be a practicable but underestimated flap for reconstructive and plastic surgery of the head and neck. OBJECTIVES To determine in which situations the SCM flap may represent a reliable alternative to other flaps used in head and neck surgery. STUDY DESIGN Meta-analysis of the complete literature on(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine how the spinal accessory nerve and the trapezius branches of the cervical plexus contribute to the innervation of each of the 3 parts of the trapezius muscle. Special emphasis was placed on the nerve supply of the clinically most important descending part of the muscle. DESIGN Anatomical analysis of the distribution of the cervical(More)
BACKGROUND The knowledge of the exact anatomy of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and its nerve and blood supply must be considered a basic prerequisite for its use as a pedicle muscle flap. OBJECTIVE To give an exact description of the courses and variability of all vessels supplying the SCM muscle. DESIGN Anatomic analysis of all arteries(More)
Although the middle ear muscles have been described for the first time more than four hundred years ago their role in modulation and transmission of sound is not yet fully understood. Surprisingly very little is known about proprioceptors in these muscles, especially in man, although this seems to be the key to the understanding of their various functions.(More)
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