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To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms in Huntington's disease (HD) elicited by expression of full-length human mutant huntingtin (fl-mhtt), a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-mediated transgenic mouse model (BACHD) was developed expressing fl-mhtt with 97 glutamine repeats under the control of endogenous htt regulatory machinery on the BAC. BACHD mice(More)
The electrophysiological properties of distinct subpopulations of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSSNs) were compared using enhanced green fluorescent protein as a reporter gene for identification of neurons expressing dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtypes in mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in slices revealed that passive membrane properties(More)
Gap junctions provide a means for electrotonic coupling between neurons, allowing for the generation of synchronous activity, an important contributor to learning and memory. Connexin36 (Cx36) is largely neuron specific and provides a target for genetic manipulation to determine the physiological relevance of neuronal coupling. Within the striatum, Cx36 is(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and severe cortical dysplasia (CD), or CD type II according to Palmini classification, share histopathologic similarities, specifically the presence of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells. In this study we examined the morphologic and electrophysiologic properties of cells in cortical tissue samples from pediatric patients(More)
A defining histopathologic feature of Taylor-type cortical dysplasia (CD) is the presence of cytomegalic neurons and balloon cells. Most cytomegalic neurons appear to be pyramidal-shaped and glutamatergic. The present study demonstrates the presence of cytomegalic GABAergic interneurons in a subset of pediatric patients with severe CD. Cortical tissue(More)
Cortical dysplasia (CD), a frequent pathological substrate of pediatric epilepsy surgery patients, has a number of similarities with immature cortex, such as reduced Mg2+ sensitivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and the persistence of subplate-like neurons and undifferentiated cells. Because gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main(More)
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) and cortical dysplasia Type IIB (CDIIB) share histopathologic features that suggest similar epileptogenic mechanisms. This study compared the morphological and electrophysiological properties of cortical cells in tissue from pediatric TSC (n=20) and CDIIB (n=20) patients using whole-cell patch clamp recordings and biocytin(More)
A fully automatic LSI wire-bonding system utilizing image processing techniques is described. The position recognition system developed is composed of measuring stations, a recognition device, a minicomputer, and cassette tape-recorders. The position of the bonding pad is found, generally in real-time, by the recognition device and computer. The computer(More)
Enzymes which catalyze the formation of free radicals in vitro will catalyze similar reactions in vivo. We believe that the formation of some kinds of free radicals has definite physiological meanings in metabolism. In this sense, the enzymes forming such free radicals are concluded to be in evolutionally advanced states. Elaborated structure and function(More)
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