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The three protocols of the comet assay A/N, A/A and N/N were for the first time applied to the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. The purpose of the experiments was to establish conditions for genotoxic exposure causing DNA damage in Arabidopsis nuclei. This is required for comprehensive gene expression profiling with the intention to screen for genes(More)
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe, newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has already led to tremendous losses in the cultured shrimp industry. Until now, its disease-causing mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that an AHPND-causing strain of V. parahaemolyticus contains a 70-kbp(More)
It has recently been suggested that Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), plays an essential role in the alternative adaptive immune system of invertebrates. Here, we isolated and characterized the first shrimp Dscam from Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDscam protein had an extracellular domain but(More)
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) seems likely to play a key role in the "alternative adaptive immunity" that has been reported in invertebrates. Dscam consists of a cytoplasmic tail that is involved in signal transduction and a hypervariable extracellular region that might use a pathogen recognition mechanism similar to that used by the(More)
The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the(More)
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are highly conserved from nematode to mammal because they play an important role in several aspects of pre-mRNA maturation, including RNA packaging and alternative splicing. In Drosophila, the hnRNP A1 homolog hrp36 regulates alternative splicing in several genes, including the Down syndrome cell adhesion(More)
We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to(More)
AIMS In this study we identified viral gene targets of the important redox regulator thioredoxin (Trx), and explored in depth how Trx interacts with the immediate early gene #1 (IE1) of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). RESULTS In a pull-down assay, we found that recombinant Trx bound to IE1 under oxidizing conditions, and a coimmunoprecipitation(More)
In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3x control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein(More)
We show here that the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early protein IE1 interacts with the Penaeus monodon TATA box-binding protein (PmTBP) and that this protein-protein interaction occurs in the absence of any other viral or cellular proteins or nucleic acids, both in vitro and in vivo. Mapping studies using enhanced green fluorescent protein(More)