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OBJECTIVE To assess whether polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor genes and in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT ) are predictors of adverse effects of L -dopa. METHODS A retrospective noninterventional study with 183 patients with PD was conducted. Nine polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 ), two of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3 ), three of(More)
Genetic factors contribute to the phenotype of drug response. We systematically analyzed all available pharmacogenetic data from Medline databases (1970-2003) on the impact that genetic polymorphisms have on positive and adverse reactions to antidepressants and antipsychotics. Additionally, dose adjustments that would compensate for genetically caused(More)
Extrapyramidal adverse symptoms (EPS) represent a major type of adverse events in treatment with typical antipsychotic drugs which share high affinity to the dopamine D(2) receptor (DRD2). Genetic variants of this receptor may modulate the therapeutic response and the severity of adverse symptoms of antipsychotics. We analyzed nine known polymorphisms of(More)
OBJECTIVE This review aimed to provide distinct dose recommendations for antidepressants based on the genotypes of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19. This approach may be a useful complementation to clinical monitoring and therapeutic drug monitoring. METHOD Our literature search covered 32 antidepressants marketed in Europe, Canada, and the(More)
RATIONALE Perazine (PER) is a phenothiazine antipsychotic drug frequently used in Germany that undergoes extensive metabolism. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS To anticipate metabolic drug interactions and to explore the relevance of polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes, perazine-N-demethylation and perazine-N-oxidation were investigated in vitro using human liver(More)
Extracts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) are used in treatment of depression. They contain various substances with the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin as characteristic ingredients. These compounds were shown to cause phototoxicity in cell culture and in animals. A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with monitoring of(More)
The human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) demonstrates two polymorphisms with possible functional impact: a 44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of the promoter region and a 17-bp variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) in intron 2 (STin2). Such genetic polymorphisms in the serotoninergic system may increase the susceptibility to(More)
Antidepressant drug therapy is characterized by a high rate of therapeutic failure. There is increasing evidence that genetic factors are contributing to the inter-individual variability in antidepressant drug response. Genetic variability is described in both the pharmacokinetic part of drug action as well as in pharmacodynamic structures mediating drug(More)
The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disease and in the action of dopaminergic drugs. The 48-bp repeat polymorphism (48-bp VNTR) coding for a 16-amino acid segment in the third cytoplasmatic loop of the DRD4 was studied as a predictor of the therapeutic response to antipsychotics and as susceptibility(More)
BACKGROUND A five-fold increase in risk of stent thrombosis in carriers of A1/A2 (Leu33Pro) polymorphism of glycoprotein Illa has been described. Whether this increased procedural risk applies to other coronary interventions is unknown. We investigated the role of A1/A2 polymorphism as a putative risk factor. METHODS We genotyped 1000 consecutive patients(More)