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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the entrance of circulating molecules and immune cells into the central nervous system. The barrier is formed by specialized brain endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions (TJ). A defective function of the BBB has been described for a variety of neuroinflammatory diseases, indicating that proper(More)
Methamphetamine (METH), a potent stimulant with strong euphoric properties, has a high abuse liability and long-lasting neurotoxic effects. Recent studies in animal models have indicated that METH can induce impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus suggesting that some of the neurotoxic effects resulting from METH abuse could be the outcome of(More)
It has been proposed that the positioning of mobile cells within a tissue is determined by their overall profile of chemokine receptors. This study examines the profiles of chemokine receptors expressed on resting and activated adult human microglial cells, astrocytes and a microglial cell line, CHME3. Microglia express highest levels of CXCR1, CXCR3 and(More)
Alterations to blood-brain barrier (BBB) adhesion molecules and junctional integrity during neuroinflammation can promote central nervous system (CNS) pathology. The chemokine CCL2 is elevated during CNS inflammation and is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The effects of CCL2 on endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) have not been defined. We(More)
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a major hallmark of many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a genomics approach, we defined a microRNA signature that is diminished at the BBB of MS patients. In particular, miR-125a-5p is a key regulator of brain endothelial tightness and immune cell efflux. Our findings suggest that(More)
Evidence suggests that endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an essential role in brain inflammation. However, whether ET-1 contributes directly to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown remains to be elucidated. Using an in vitro BBB model consisting of co-cultures of human primary astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), we first investigated the(More)
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression at the blood-brain barrier prevents unwanted blood-borne toxins and signalling molecules from entering the brain. Primary and immortalised human brain endothelial cells (BECs) represent two suitable options for studying P-gp function in vitro. The limited supply of primary human BECs and their instability over passage number(More)
Since the first attempts in the 1970s to isolate cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (CECs) in order to model the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro, the need for a human BBB model that closely mimics the in vivo phenotype and is reproducible and easy to grow, has been widely recognized by cerebrovascular researchers in both academia and industry. While(More)
In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier (B-BB) generally utilise murine or porcine brain endothelium and rat astrocytes which are commonly grown in foetal calf serum supplemented conditions which modulate cell growth rates. Consequently, results gained from these experimental models can be difficult to extrapolate to the human in vivo situation since(More)
PURPOSE Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. The cell line ARPE-19 was therefore examined for response to oxidative stress and its effect on stress protein induction and junctional integrity. METHODS ARPE-19 cell viability after 1 week or 5 weeks in culture was assessed in response to different(More)