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Despite the sequencing of the human and mouse genomes, few genetic mechanisms for protecting against autoimmune disease are currently known. Here we systematically screen the mouse genome for autoimmune regulators to isolate a mouse strain, sanroque, with severe autoimmune disease resulting from a single recessive defect in a previously unknown mechanism(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea. DESIGN Systematic review. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trials register, CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, LILACS; hand searching; and correspondence with experts and relevant organisations. STUDY SELECTION(More)
The 9th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in La Coruna, Spain on June 23-29, 2007. A total of 235 pathologists, clinicians and scientists met to address unsolved issues in transplantation and adapt the Banff schema for renal allograft rejection in response to emerging data and technologies. The outcome of the consensus discussions on renal(More)
The 8th Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology was held in Edmonton, Canada, 15-21 July 2005. Major outcomes included the elimination of the non-specific term "chronic allograft nephropathy" (CAN) from the Banff classification for kidney allograft pathology, and the recognition of the entity of chronic antibody-mediated rejection. Participation of B cells(More)
BACKGROUND Public objection to autopsy has led to a search for minimally invasive alternatives. Imaging has potential, but its accuracy is unknown. We aimed to identify the accuracy of post-mortem CT and MRI compared with full autopsy in a large series of adult deaths. METHODS This study was undertaken at two UK centres in Manchester and Oxford between(More)
Smad6 and Smad7 are inhibitory SMADs with putative functional roles at the intersection of major intracellular signaling networks, including TGF-beta, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), JAK/STAT, and NF-kappaB pathways. This study reports differential functional roles and regulation of Smad6 and Smad7 in TGF-beta signaling in renal cells, in murine models of(More)
Heparin remains a major drug in prevention of thromboembolic disease. Concerns related to its animal source have prompted search for heparin analogues. The anticoagulant activity of heparin depends on a specific pentasaccharide sequence that binds antithrombin. We report the generation of a product with antithrombin-binding, anticoagulant, and(More)
Elucidation of the molecular structure of heparan sulfate (HS) is the key to understanding its functional versatility as a co-receptor for growth factors and morphogens. We have identified and exploited the novel substrate specificity of the coliphage K5 lyase in studies of the domain organization of HS. We show that K5 lyase cleaves HS principally within(More)
IgA nephropathy is defined by the presence of IgA-dominant or co-dominant immune deposits within glomeruli. Biopsy specimens meeting these diagnostic criteria have a range of histological changes that are reflected in the variable clinical course of IgA nephropathy. The impact of histology on outcomes in IgA nephropathy has been clarified in a number of(More)
IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerular disease worldwide, yet there is no international consensus for its pathological or clinical classification. Here a new classification for IgA nephropathy is presented by an international consensus working group. The goal of this new system was to identify specific pathological features that more accurately(More)