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Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent, highly addictive psychostimulant consumed worldwide. In humans and experimental animals, repeated exposure to this drug induces persistent neurodegenerative changes. Damage occurs primarily to dopaminergic neurons, accompanied by gliosis. The toxic effects of METH involve excessive dopamine (DA) release, thus DA receptors(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), amphetamine derivatives widely used as recreational drugs, induce similar neurotoxic effects in mice, including a marked loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum. Although the role of dopamine in these neurotoxic effects is well established and(More)
Oxidative stress that correlates with damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and reactive gliosis in the basal ganglia is a hallmark of methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. In this study, we analyzed the protective role of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2), a master regulator of redox homeostasis, in METH-induced(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons have been found in the striatum after dopamine depletion; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying their appearance or their functional significance. We previously showed an increase in striatal TH-ir neurons after L-DOPA treatment in mice with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions in the striatum. In(More)
Brain ischemia triggers excessive release of neurotransmitters that mediate neuronal damage following ischemic injury. The striatum is one of the areas most sensitive to ischemia. Release of dopamine (DA) from ischemic neurons is neurotoxic and directly contributes to the cell death in affected areas. Astrocytes are known to be critically involved in the(More)
Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the(More)
This paper introduces a simple and computationally efficient algorithm for conversion formulae between moments and cumulants. The algorithm provides just one formula for classical, boolean and free cu-mulants. This is realized by using a suitable polynomial representation of Abel polynomials. The algorithm relies on the classical umbral calculus , a(More)
By a symbolic method, we introduce multivariate Bernoulli and Euler polynomials as powers of polynomials whose coefficients involve multivariate Lévy processes. Many properties of these polynomials are stated straightforwardly thanks to this representation, which could be easily implemented in any symbolic manipulation system. A very simple relation between(More)
Objectives To evaluate the clinical usefulness of lung biopsy in ventilated patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit. Methods Retrospective descriptive study that included 16 ventilated patients admitted to the ICU, which underwent a lung biopsy between 2008 and 2013.oalveolar lavage (BAL), radiological pattern and histology, were analyzed. Changes in(More)
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