I N Belozerova

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After humans and animals have been in conditions of real and modeled weightlessness, the most marked changes are seen in the "slow" tonic muscles, particularly soleus. Studies of the effects of weightlessness and movement restriction on the soleus muscle in monkeys demonstrated significant reductions in the sizes of slow and rapid fibers due mainly to the(More)
The effect of microgravity on slow- and fast-twitch fibers of m. vastus lateralis of rhesus monkeys was investigated. After real flight, fibers of both types were reduced in size, whereas after simulated flight, only type I fibers tended to diminish. Oxidative potential decreased in type II fibers of both flight and control animals.
Monkeys subjected to space flight were found to have significant decreases in the sizes of slow and rapid fibers in the vastus lateralis muscle, due not only to weightlessness but also, to some extent, to restriction of movement activity within the capsule. The quantity of total protein in muscle fibers did not decrease. The respiratory peak in the pool of(More)
After staying in real and simulated weightlessness, the most obvious changes were recorded in the "slow" tonic muscles like m. soleus, the protein loss in the fibres being greater than the loss of other components, water included.
The fiber size decline, alterations in fiber metabolic potential and increase of connective tissue component were shown in human m. vastus lateralis after short and long-duration space flights and in m.soleus and m.vastus lateralis after 120 day head down tilt bed rest. It is known from rat and monkey studies that the exposure to weightlessness leads to the(More)
It was shown that changes in structural and metabolic indices of extensor muscles of the lower extremities were usually found in man after exposure to space flight or to bed rest. Similar changes were also observed in monkeys, space-flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites. Response to weightlessness and to restraint was found to be different in m. soleus and in m.(More)
The effect of microgravity and diminished motor activity on m. soleus fibers of rhesus monkeys was investigated. A significant size reduction of both slow- and fast-twitch fibers was found in the flight animals only. Also, total protein and capillary per fiber number were shown to decrease in the flight animals.
The dynamics of atrophy in the muscles-extensors of the leg and thigh during long-term hypokinesia was studied with the model of head-down tilt (HDT -6 degrees) in a series of two experiments (120 and 60 days in duration) with participation of men and women. Dynamics of the cross-sectional area of human muscular fibers was characterized by similar atrophy(More)
The first studies of space flown rats revealed that in m.soleus (SOL) slow-twitch fibers (ST) were reduced in size more pronouncedly than fast-twitch fibers (FT). The same differences in the fiber atrophy levels were found in rats after hind-limb suspension. At the same time, the studies on humans exposed to real and simulated weightlessness demonstrated(More)
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