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Recent evidence suggests that reproductive steroids are important players in shaping stroke outcome and cerebrovascular pathophysiologic features. Although women are at lower risk for stroke than men, this native protection is lost in the postmenopausal years. Therefore, aging women sustain a large burden for stroke, contrary to a popular misconception that(More)
The capacity of endothelin-1 to induce severe reductions in cerebral blood flow and ischaemic neuronal damage was assessed in anaesthetised rats. Endothelin-1 (25 microliters of 10(-7)-10(-4) M) was applied to the adventitial surface of an exposed middle cerebral artery and striatal blood flow assessed by the hydrogen clearance technique. Endothelin-1(More)
Brain aromatase has been shown to be increased in expression after neurotoxic damage and to exert neuroprotection via generation of local oestrogens. The present study investigates the topography and time course of brain aromatase expression after experimental stroke (middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)). Ovariectomised stroke prone spontaneously(More)
1. The aim of this study was to investigate whether delayed treatment with the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent ebselen reduces the volume of infarction in a rodent model of permanent focal cerebral ischaemia. 2. Ebselen (10 or 30 mg kg-1) or vehicle was administered by gavage 30 min and 12 h after the induction of cerebral ischaemia by permanent(More)
We have investigated genetic transmission of increased sensitivity to focal cerebral ischemia and the influence of gender in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP). Halothane-anesthetized, 3- to 5-month-old male and female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), SHRSP, and the first filial generation rats (F1 crosses 1 and 2) underwent distal (2 mm)(More)
The present study employs selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists to determine whether 17beta-estradiol-induced neuroprotection in global ischemia is receptor mediated and, if so, which subtype of receptor (ERalpha or ERbeta) is predominantly responsible. Halothane-anesthetized female C57Bl/6J mice were ovariectomized, and osmotic minipumps containing(More)
1. We have recently developed a new model of transient focal ischaemia in the rat utilising topical application of endothelin-1 to the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). In order to validate this approach the present study assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in the endothelin-1 model. The anti-ischaemic(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with oxygen challenge (T(2)(*) OC) uses oxygen as a metabolic biotracer to define penumbral tissue based on CMRO(2) and oxygen extraction fraction. Penumbra displays a greater T(2)(*) signal change during OC than surrounding tissue. Since timely restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) should salvage penumbra, T(2)(*) OC was(More)
We previously reported that during pro-estrus (high endogenous estrogen levels), brain damage after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was reduced in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) but not in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In the present study, we examined the effect of exogenous estrogen on brain damage after MCAO in SHRSP(More)
Accurate identification of ischemic penumbra will improve stroke patient selection for reperfusion therapies and clinical trials. Current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have limitations and lack validation. Oxygen challenge T(2)(*) MRI (T(2)(*) OC) uses oxygen as a biotracer to detect tissue metabolism, with penumbra displaying the greatest(More)