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The larval shells of the marine bivalves Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea gigas are investigated by polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman imaging spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Both species contain similar shell ultrastructures. We show that larval shells contain amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), in addition to(More)
This review addresses epidemiological, public health, and social policy implications of categorizing young children and their adult female caregivers in the United States as food secure when they live in households with "marginal food security," as indicated by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Existing literature shows that households in the(More)
The insoluble matrix of larval shells of the marine bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis is investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy using a GFP fusion protein with a chitin-binding domain for labeling of chitinous structures. We show that chitinous material is present in the larval shell, presumably as a chitin-protein complex. We further(More)
BACKGROUND Chitin self-assembly provides a dynamic extracellular biomineralization interface. The insoluble matrix of larval shells of the marine bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis consists of chitinous material that is distributed and structured in relation to characteristic shell features. Mollusc shell chitin is synthesized via a complex(More)
Chitin is a key component in mollusk nacre formation. However, the enzyme complex responsible for chitin deposition in the mollusk shell remained unknown. We cloned and characterized the chitin synthase of the marine bivalve mollusk Atrina rigida. We present here the first chitin synthase sequence from invertebrates containing an unconventional myosin motor(More)
Plant biomineralization involves calcium and silicon transport and mineralization. Respective analytical methods and case studies are listed. Calcium carbonate is deposited in cystoliths, calcium oxalate in idioblasts. Silicon is deposited in phytoliths. Biomineralization is a coordinated process.
The feathers in the train of the peacock serve not for flying but for sexual display. They are long, slender beams loaded in bending by their own weight. An outer circular conical shell, the cortex, is filled by a closed foam of 7.6% relative density, the medulla, both of feather keratin. Outer diameter and thickness of the cortex decrease linearly from the(More)
The high level expression of the human α globin genes in erythroid tissue appears to require a set of DNaseI hypersensitive sites located upstream of the human α-globin gene cluster. These sequences, termed the locus control region (LCR), include two erythroid specific and a number of less restricted DNaseI hypersensitive sites. In this report we describe(More)
Insolubility is one of the possible functions of proteins involved in biomineralization, which often limits their native purification. This becomes a major problem especially when recombinant expression systems are required to obtain larger amounts. For example, the mollusc shell provides a rich source of unconventional proteins, which can interfere in(More)