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The larval shells of the marine bivalves Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea gigas are investigated by polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman imaging spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Both species contain similar shell ultrastructures. We show that larval shells contain amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), in addition to(More)
The insoluble matrix of larval shells of the marine bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis is investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy using a GFP fusion protein with a chitin-binding domain for labeling of chitinous structures. We show that chitinous material is present in the larval shell, presumably as a chitin-protein complex. We further(More)
The feathers in the train of the peacock serve not for flying but for sexual display. They are long, slender beams loaded in bending by their own weight. An outer circular conical shell, the cortex, is filled by a closed foam of 7.6% relative density, the medulla, both of feather keratin. Outer diameter and thickness of the cortex decrease linearly from the(More)
Plant biomineralization involves calcium and silicon transport and mineralization. Respective analytical methods and case studies are listed. Calcium carbonate is deposited in cystoliths, calcium oxalate in idioblasts. Silicon is deposited in phytoliths. Biomineralization is a coordinated process.
Chitin self-assembly provides a dynamic extracellular biomineralization interface. The insoluble matrix of larval shells of the marine bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis consists of chitinous material that is distributed and structured in relation to characteristic shell features. Mollusc shell chitin is synthesized via a complex transmembrane chitin(More)
This review addresses epidemiological, public health, and social policy implications of categorizing young children and their adult female caregivers in the United States as food secure when they live in households with "marginal food security," as indicated by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Existing literature shows that households in the(More)
Chitin is a key component in mollusk nacre formation. However, the enzyme complex responsible for chitin deposition in the mollusk shell remained unknown. We cloned and characterized the chitin synthase of the marine bivalve mollusk Atrina rigida. We present here the first chitin synthase sequence from invertebrates containing an unconventional myosin motor(More)
Extraction of RNA from Tetrahymena mitochondrial ribosomes yields several RNA species, including a “large” 21S molecule, a “small” 14S molecule, a 7S molecule, and other smaller RNAs. The molecular weight of the 14S rRNA indicates that it is about 1,300 bases in length. We have sequenced the 14S rRNA gene and, by aligning our sequence with that of the(More)
The atomic force microscope has been used to investigate microtubules and kinesin decorated microtubules in aqueous solution adsorbed onto a solid substrate. The netto negatively charged microtubules did not adsorb to negatively charged solid surfaces but to glass covalently coated with the highly positively charged silane(More)
Molluscs have a well-deserved reputation for being expert mineralizers of various shell types such as nacre. Nacre is defined as regularly arranged layers and stacks of approximately 0.5 microm thick aragonite platelets that are extracellularly formed within a complex mixture of organic matrix. The control of species-specific layer thickness by the animal(More)