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Energy use, mainly to reverse ion movements in neurons, is a fundamental constraint on brain information processing. Trafficking of mitochondria to locations in neurons where there are large ion fluxes is essential for powering neural function. Mitochondrial trafficking is regulated by Ca2+ entry through ionotropic glutamate receptors, but the underlying(More)
The efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs) expressed on the cell surface of neurons. The clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex is a critical regulator of GABA(A)R endocytosis and, hence, surface receptor number. Here, we identify a previously uncharacterized atypical AP2 binding motif(More)
The density of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) at synapses regulates brain excitability, and altered inhibition may contribute to Huntington's disease, which is caused by a polyglutamine repeat in the protein huntingtin. However, the machinery that delivers GABA(A)Rs to synapses is unknown. We demonstrate that GABA(A)Rs are trafficked to synapses by the(More)
The regulation of the number of gamma2-subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) present at synapses is critical for correct synaptic inhibition and animal behavior. This regulation occurs, in part, by the controlled removal of receptors from the membrane in clathrin-coated vesicles, but it remains unclear how clathrin recruitment to surface(More)
GABA(A) receptors mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA(A) receptors associate with a number of cytosolic proteins important for regulating their function including the GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit associated protein GABARAP. Here we show GABARAP associates with the synaptic PDZ domain containing(More)
Modification of the number of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) clustered at inhibitory synapses can regulate inhibitory synapse strength with important implications for information processing and nervous system plasticity and pathology. Currently, however, the mechanisms that regulate the number of GABA(A)Rs at synapses remain poorly understood. By imaging(More)
The strength of synaptic inhibition depends partly on the number of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) found at synaptic sites. The trafficking of GABA(A)Rs within the endocytic pathway is a key determinant of surface GABA(A)R number and is altered in neuropathologies, such as cerebral ischemia. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that(More)
Healthy nodes of Ranvier are crucial for action potential propagation along myelinated axons, both in the central and in the peripheral nervous system. Surprisingly, the node of Ranvier has often been neglected when describing CNS disorders, with most pathologies classified simply as being due to neuronal defects in the grey matter or due to oligodendrocyte(More)
Synaptic inhibition plays a key role in regulating neuronal excitability and information processing in the brain. The strength of synaptic inhibition is therefore an important determinant of both cellular and network activity levels in the central nervous system (CNS). gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are the major sites for fast(More)
It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport(More)