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Limb and respiratory muscle (diaphragm) strength and fatiguability have been extensively studied in man and are known to vary with age and sex. However, in contrast to limb muscles and the diaphragm, force and fatiguability characteristics have not been studied in upper airway muscles. This study examines the hypotheses that tongue protrusion strength or(More)
The sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) is characterized by retroglossal or retropalatal narrowing. The site of obstruction, and the fact that negative pressure in the upper airway increases retroglossal airway size, suggests that tongue muscles may play a role in the maintenance of upper airway patency. We therefore hypothesized that tongue protrusion(More)
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (U3P) has been advocated for treatment of snoring and sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS), but often it does not effect a cure, so that other therapy (CPAP) is often required. We hypothesized that patients with U3P will have increased mouth air leak during CPAP because of loss of the soft palatal seal. This may result in decreased(More)
Around 50% of patients with the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) are not obese: body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2. We hypothesized that local fat deposition around the upper airway may be different in nonobese patients with SAHS from that in normal subjects with the same body mass. We therefore examined the relationship between indices of general(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that unsupervised domiciliary limited sleep studies do not impair the accuracy of diagnosis when used to investigate the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) and can be cheaper than laboratory polysomnography. METHODS For validation, 23 subjects with suspected SAHS underwent laboratory(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) find nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment unsatisfactory due to side effects related to mouth air leakage. A study was performed to compare side effects with face mask and nose mask CPAP therapy in patients with SAHS, with and without uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (U3P).(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity and increased neck circumference are risk factors for the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). SAHS is more common in men than in women, despite the fact that women have higher rates of obesity and greater overall body fat. One factor in this apparently paradoxical sex distribution may be the differing patterns of fat(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that chronic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy may produce reversible changes in upper airway morphology and function in patients with sleep apnoea/hypopnoea. This study was designed to examine the effect of chronic CPAP therapy on upper airway calibre. METHODS Twenty four men with the sleep(More)
The sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) affects 1-4% of the middle-aged population and is caused by repeated occlusion of the upper airway mainly at the retropalatal level. It is unclear why SAHS patients obstruct their upper airways during sleep while others do not. We hypothesized that upper airway dilator muscle function may be impaired in SAHS patients(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing referral numbers make the development of simplified accurate methods of diagnosing the sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome highly desirable. The accuracy of one such system--the ResCare Autoset--has been examined. METHODS Thirty one consecutive patients assessed by polysomnography had simultaneous monitoring of their respiratory pattern(More)