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Kv1.3 potassium channels maintain the membrane potential of effector memory (T(EM)) T cells that are important mediators of multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. The polypeptide ShK-170 (ShK-L5), containing an N-terminal phosphotyrosine extension of the Stichodactyla helianthus ShK toxin, is a potent and selective blocker(More)
Coincident spikes have been implicated in vision-related processes such as feature binding, gain modulation, and long-distance communication. The source of these spike-time correlations is unknown. Although several studies have proposed that cortical spikes are correlated based on stimulus structure, others have suggested that spike-time correlations(More)
Optical imaging of intrinsic cortical responses to visual stimuli was used to characterize the organization of the middle temporal visual area (MT) of a prosimian primate, the bush baby (Otolemur garnetti). Stimulation with moving gratings revealed a patchwork of oval-like domains in MT. These orientation domains could, in turn, be subdivided into zones(More)
The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K(+) channel is a novel target for immunomodulation of autoreactive effector memory T (T(EM)) cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We describe the characterization of the novel peptide ShK(L5) that contains l-phosphotyrosine linked via a nine-atom hydrophilic linker to the N terminus of the ShK(More)
Peptide toxins found in a wide array of venoms block K(+) channels, causing profound physiological and pathological effects. Here we describe the first functional K(+) channel-blocking toxin domain in a mammalian protein. MMP23 (matrix metalloprotease 23) contains a domain (MMP23(TxD)) that is evolutionarily related to peptide toxins from sea anemones.(More)
Several studies have shown that neurons with similar response properties are arranged together in domains across primary visual cortex (V1). An orderly pattern of domains has been described for preferences to ocular dominance, orientation, and spatial frequency. Temporal frequency preference, another important attribute of the visual scene, also might be(More)
A possible neurobiological basis for the "oblique effect" is linked to the finding that more neural machinery is devoted to processing cardinal vs. oblique orientations in primary visual cortex (V1). We used optical imaging to determine whether more territory is devoted to processing horizontal and vertical orientations than oblique orientations in owl(More)
The polypeptide toxin ShK is a potent blocker of Kv1.3 potassium channels, which are crucial in the activation of human effector memory T cells (T(EM)); selective blockers constitute valuable therapeutic leads for the treatment of autoimmune diseases mediated by T(EM) cells, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type-1 diabetes. The critical(More)
ShK-toxin, a 35 residue peptide isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, was synthesized using an Fmoc strategy and successfully folded to the biologically active form containing three intramolecular disulfide bonds. The ability of synthetic ShK toxin to inhibit specific [125I]-dendrotoxin I binding to rat brain membranes slightly exceeded(More)
An "Ala scan" analysis of ShK toxin, a 35-residue basic peptide possessing three disulfide bonds, identifies seven side chains which influence binding to brain delayed rectifier potassium channels. Additional analogs were synthesized and tested to further decipher the roles of these residues, particularly Tyr23. The inhibitory effects of these analogs on(More)