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Coincident spikes have been implicated in vision-related processes such as feature binding, gain modulation, and long-distance communication. The source of these spike-time correlations is unknown. Although several studies have proposed that cortical spikes are correlated based on stimulus structure, others have suggested that spike-time correlations(More)
Optical imaging of intrinsic cortical responses to visual stimuli was used to characterize the organization of the middle temporal visual area (MT) of a prosimian primate, the bush baby (Otolemur garnetti). Stimulation with moving gratings revealed a patchwork of oval-like domains in MT. These orientation domains could, in turn, be subdivided into zones(More)
A possible neurobiological basis for the "oblique effect" is linked to the finding that more neural machinery is devoted to processing cardinal vs. oblique orientations in primary visual cortex (V1). We used optical imaging to determine whether more territory is devoted to processing horizontal and vertical orientations than oblique orientations in owl(More)
The middle temporal area (MT) is a visual area in primates with direct and indirect inputs from the primary visual cortex (V1), a role in visual motion perception, and a suggested role in "blindsight." When V1 is deactivated, some studies report continued activation of MT neurons, which has been attributed to an indirect pathway to MT from the superior(More)
Kv1.3 potassium channels maintain the membrane potential of effector memory (T(EM)) T cells that are important mediators of multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. The polypeptide ShK-170 (ShK-L5), containing an N-terminal phosphotyrosine extension of the Stichodactyla helianthus ShK toxin, is a potent and selective blocker(More)
Peptide toxins found in a wide array of venoms block K(+) channels, causing profound physiological and pathological effects. Here we describe the first functional K(+) channel-blocking toxin domain in a mammalian protein. MMP23 (matrix metalloprotease 23) contains a domain (MMP23(TxD)) that is evolutionarily related to peptide toxins from sea anemones.(More)
Several studies have shown that neurons with similar response properties are arranged together in domains across primary visual cortex (V1). An orderly pattern of domains has been described for preferences to ocular dominance, orientation, and spatial frequency. Temporal frequency preference, another important attribute of the visual scene, also might be(More)
Optical imaging of cortical signals enables the mapping of functional organization across large patches of cortex with good spatial resolution. But techniques for the quantitative analysis and interpretation of these images are limited. Frequently the functional architecture of the cortex is inferred from the visible topography of cortical reflectance(More)
Coincident spikes have been implicated in vision-related processes such as feature binding, gain modulation and long distance communication. The source of these spike-time correlations is unknown. Although several studies have proposed that cortical spikes are correlated based on stimulus structure, others have suggested that spike-time correlations reflect(More)
Several studies have shown that neurons with similar response properties are arranged together in domains across primary visual cortex (V1). An orderly pattern of domains has been described for preferences to ocular dominance, orientation, and spatial frequency. Temporal frequency preference, another important attribute of the visual scene, also might be(More)