I Joanna Makowska

Learn More
Some experts suggest that sedation of laboratory rodents with isoflurane before euthanasia with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a humane alternative to euthanasia with CO(2) alone, but little research has compared aversion with these agents. Albino rats were tested in a light-dark box where they had the choice between remaining in a dark compartment filling with(More)
Standard laboratory cages prevent rats (Rattus norvegicus) from performing many behaviours that they perform in the wild, but little is known about how this may affect their welfare. The aims of this study were (i) to record the propensity to burrow, climb and stand upright in 3-, 8- and 13-month old laboratory rats housed in semi-naturalistic environments(More)
Laboratory rats are usually kept in relatively small cages, but research has shown that they prefer larger and more complex environments. The physiological, neurological and health effects of standard laboratory housing are well established, but fewer studies have addressed the sustained emotional impact of a standard cage environment. One method of(More)
Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. There is an ethical, and in many countries also a legal, imperative to ensure those deaths cause minimal suffering. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. In 2013, an international group of researchers and(More)
  • 1