I-Jen P Castle

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OBJECTIVES To explore whether varenicline (Chantix) showed more efficacy in treating certain subgroups of patients. In a recent multisite trial, varenicline was shown to be effective in reducing drinking in alcohol-dependent patients, both smokers and nonsmokers. Given the heterogeneity among alcohol-dependent patients, secondary analyses were conducted to(More)
BACKGROUND Females in the United States consume less alcohol and cause and experience fewer alcohol-related harms than males. However, recent research suggests such gaps might be narrowing. The purpose of this study was to explore changes in alcohol use and associated outcomes among females and males in the United States between 2002 and 2012. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The placebo effect often undermines efforts to determine treatment effectiveness in clinical trials. A significant placebo response occurs in alcohol trials, but it is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the placebo response across multiple naltrexone and acamprosate studies. METHODS Fifty-one trials, 3 with a(More)
BACKGROUND The majority of U.S. older adults consume alcoholic beverages. The older population is projected to almost double by 2050. Substantially more drinkers are likely. PURPOSE To describe gender-specific trends (1997 to 2014) in prevalence of drinking status (lifetime abstention, former drinking, current drinking [including average volume], and(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescent substance users face serious health and social consequences and benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. The objectives of this study were to observe trends in treatment utilization; examine correlates of treatment utilization and treatment types/settings among adolescent substance users with and without substance use disorder(More)
OBJECTIVE We used motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crash fatalities as an example to examine the extent of underreporting of alcohol involvement on death certificates and state variations. METHOD We compared MVT-related death certificates identified from national mortality data (Multiple Cause of Death [MCoD] data) with deaths in national traffic census data(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol consumption may interfere with absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of medications and increase risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR). Studies report increasing prescription medication use over time, with many U.S. drinkers using alcohol-interactive medication. This study identified trends in incidence of U.S. emergency(More)
INTRODUCTION Driving under the influence of drugs, including marijuana, has become more prevalent in recent years despite local, state, and federal efforts to prevent such increases. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) is the primary source of drugged driving data for fatal crashes in the United States but lacks the completeness required to(More)
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