I. G. Charles

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Very high-throughput sequencing technologies need to be matched by high-throughput functional studies if we are to make full use of the current explosion in genome sequences. We have generated a very large bacterial mutant pool, consisting of an estimated 1.1 million transposon mutants and we have used genomic DNA from this mutant pool, and Illumina(More)
Chickens, pigs, and cattle are key reservoirs of Salmonella enterica, a foodborne pathogen of worldwide importance. Though a decade has elapsed since publication of the first Salmonella genome, thousands of genes remain of hypothetical or unknown function, and the basis of colonization of reservoir hosts is ill-defined. Moreover, previous surveys of the(More)
We have examined the effects of pregnancy and sex hormones on calcium-dependent and calcium-independent nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in the guinea pig. Pregnancy (near term) caused a > 4-fold increase in the activity of calcium-dependent NOS in the uterine artery and at least a doubling in the heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, esophagus, and cerebellum. The(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic regulator, critical to numerous biological processes, including vasodilatation, neurotransmission and macrophage-mediated immunity. The family of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) comprises inducible NOS (iNOS), endothelia (eNOS), and neuronal NOS (nNOS). Interestingly, various studies have shown that all three isoforms can be(More)
Accumulating evidence shows that the severity and rapidity of onset of diabetic retinopathy are influenced by genetic factors. Expression of the nitric oxide synthases is altered in the retinal vasculature in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. We analyzed the allele distribution of a polymorphic pentanucleotide repeat within the 5' upstream promoter(More)
A new generation of whooping-cough vaccines contain P.69 pertactin, a surface-exposed domain of an outer membrane protein expressed by the virulent bacterium Bordetella pertussis. This protein is a virulence factor that mediates adhesion to target mammalian cells, a reaction that is in part mediated by an RGD sequence. The X-ray crystal structure of P.69(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is important in many biological functions. It is generated from L-arginine by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS). The cytokine-inducible NOS (iNOS) is activated by several immunological stimuli, leading to the production of large quantities of NO which can be cytotoxic. To define the biological role of iNOS further, we generated iNOS mutant(More)
Twitching motility-mediated biofilm expansion is a complex, multicellular behavior that enables the active colonization of surfaces by many species of bacteria. In this study we have explored the emergence of intricate network patterns of interconnected trails that form in actively expanding biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We have used high-resolution,(More)
A subclone of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1, which grew reproducibly as subcutaneous tumors in nude mice, was isolated. Such cells, when engineered to generate nitric oxide (NO) continuously, grew more slowly in vitro than the wild-type parental cells. This growth retardation was reversed by the addition of N-iminoethyl-L-ornithine. In nude(More)
We recently described the use of selective transposon mutagenesis to generate a series of avirulent mutants of a pathogenic strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Cloning and sequencing of the insertion sites from two of these mutants reveals that both have identical locations within an open reading frame that is highly homologous to a gene, htrA, encoding a(More)