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Conotoxins (Ctx) form a large family of peptide toxins from cone snail venoms that act on a broad spectrum of ion channels and receptors. The subgroup alpha-Ctx specifically and selectively binds to subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are targets for treatment of several neurological disorders. Here we present the structure at a(More)
The Cys-loop receptor family consists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), glycine receptor, GABA-A and some other receptors. They fulfill a plethora of functions, whereas their malfunctioning is associated with many diseases. All three domains - extracellular ligand-binding, membrane and cytoplasmic - of these ligand-gated ion channels play(More)
Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which(More)
At present the cryo-electron microscopy structure at 4A resolution is known for the Torpedo marmorata nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and high-resolution X-ray structures have been recently determined for bacterial ligand-gated ion channels which have the same type of spatial organization. Together all these structures provide the basis for better(More)
Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic(More)
Disulfide-bound dimers of three-fingered toxins have been discovered in the Naja kaouthia cobra venom; that is, the homodimer of alpha-cobratoxin (a long-chain alpha-neurotoxin) and heterodimers formed by alpha-cobratoxin with different cytotoxins. According to circular dichroism measurements, toxins in dimers retain in general their three-fingered folding.(More)
SLURP-1 is a secreted toxin-like Ly-6/uPAR protein found in epithelium, sensory neurons and immune cells. Point mutations in the slurp-1 gene cause the autosomal inflammation skin disease Mal de Meleda. SLURP-1 is considered an autocrine/paracrine hormone that regulates growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and controls inflammation and malignant cell(More)
A series of 14 new analogs of α-conotoxin PnIA Conus pennaceus was synthesized and tested for binding to the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBP) Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica. Based on computer modeling and the X-ray structure of the A. californica AChBP complex with the PnIA[A10L, D14K](More)
The venoms of snakes from Viperidae family mainly influence the function of various blood components. However, the published data indicate that these venoms contain also neuroactive components, the most studied being neurotoxic phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s). Earlier we have shown (Gorbacheva et al., 2008) that several Viperidae venoms blocked nicotinic(More)
Short- and long-chain alpha-neurotoxins from snake venoms are potent blockers of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Short alpha-neurotoxins consist of 60-62 amino acid residues and include 4 disulfide bridges, whereas long alpha-neurotoxins have 66-75 residues and 5 disulfides. The spatial structure of these toxins is built by three loops, I-III(More)