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SETTING Five districts and four cities of Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE To study the role of informal health practitioners in delays in initiating tuberculosis (TB) treatment in new smear-positive TB patients. DESIGN A cross-sectional study of all patients registered within specific projects in Bangladesh using routine records from projects. Definitions were as(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization rates among HIV-1-infected children with those of uninfected children born to seropositive mothers and those of seronegative controls. To determine the predominant serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility among pneumococcal isolates in Kenya. METHODS Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization(More)
Xpert ® MTB/RIF offers new and important possibilities for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and/or rifampicin (RMP) resistance, and many are encouraging rapid and widespread implementation. This simple test can be implemented almost everywhere, and it provides results within a few hours. In low-income countries (LICs), however, its(More)
SETTING Low-income, high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. OBJECTIVE To compare case finding of new smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in projects funded to apply innovative approaches. DESIGN Prospective application of innovative approaches to case finding within routine services to determine the numbers of additional cases detected and the cost(More)
BACKGROUND Several FIDELIS projects (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) in Tanzania were conducted by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme (NTLP) during the years 2004-2008 to strengthen diagnostic and treatment services. These projects collected information on treatment delay and some of it was available for(More)
Recognizing that the current MDR-TB regimen is suboptimal and based on low-quality evidence, the Global MDRTB Clinical Trials Landscape Meeting was held in December, 2014 to strategize about coordination of research and development of new treatment regimens for this disease that affects millions of people worldwide every year. Sixty international experts on(More)
The importance of programmatically relevant operational research (OR) as a key driver to strengthen public health activities is well recognized (1). Moreover, building capacity of health workers from high-disease burden countries to independently conduct OR on priority issues within their health services is accepted as an essential component of public(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe infection control practices used by technicians doing manicures and pedicures in an urban setting in Ontario. METHODS A random sample of 120 establishments was selected from a sampling frame. A survey was designed and administered to technicians through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS Technicians in 72 establishments were(More)
Weak and dysfunctional health systems in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, are recognised as major obstacles to attaining the health-related Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Some progress is being made towards achieving the targets of Millennium Development Goal 6 for tuberculosis (TB), HIV/AIDS and malaria, with the(More)
SETTING Forty-two laboratories in four countries. OBJECTIVE To determine the number of sputum smear examinations required to identify one additional case of tuberculosis from a third serial diagnostic smear or one additional treatment failure from a second serial follow-up smear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Country-specific prevalence of new cases and failures(More)