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A balloon array of 112 electrodes was used to obtain simultaneous recordings of endocardial electrograms during intraoperative mapping studies of ventricular tachycardia. Introduction of the balloon through a left atriotomy and across the mitral valve allowed endocardial activation maps to be obtained in the intact left ventricle. Of 20 patients with(More)
Results of operations for recurrent ventricular tachycardia have improved since methods of mapping that allow a directed approach to the problem have been developed. With standard operative techniques (ventriculotomy and introduction of a hand-held probe or multiple electrode array), it has not always been possible to obtain satisfactory endocardial(More)
Results of operation for control of ventricular tachycardia have improved since endocardial mapping techniques have been developed that allow a directed approach to the problem. In some patients, a limitation of established techniques has been difficulty in initiating the arrhythmia after a ventriculotomy has been made to allow introduction of endocardial(More)
Thirty-five patients with ischemic heart disease and ventricular arrhythmias underwent intraoperative activation mapping at the time of coronary artery bypass surgery. During ventricular tachycardia, the sequence of activation in the intact ventricle was recorded simultaneously from 110 endocardial or 110 epicardial sites, or both. A balloon array of(More)
Sustained improvement in blood glucose control is the only treatment outcome which will reduce or eliminate the long term complications of diabetes mellitus. We have designed and evaluated an electronic information system which facilitates this task. The system is voice-interactive, physician directed and affords, to remote patients, 24 h access via(More)
An on-line automatic mapping system was developed for beat by beat display of epicardial activation during ventricular tachycardia induced at the time of cardiac surgery. A sock array of 110 button electrodes was used to record and display local activation on a video monitor at 8.3 ms intervals. On instant replay in slow motion, epicardial pacing sites were(More)
A three-dimensional display is described that allows activation sequences from the epicardium and endocardium to be shown simultaneously on the same image. Three electrode arrays (epicardial sock, left ventricular balloon, right ventricular balloon) are represented in a three-dimensional perspective by an array of dots that are intensified when activated.(More)
The advent of multichannel recording systems has enabled clinical mapping to be performed on a beat-by-beat basis using multi-electrode arrays. Surgical ablation of ventricular arrhythmias generally requires endocardial mapping. Clinical usage has indicated that an inflatable balloon array is the most practical design and can obviate the need for(More)
An analog mapping system using a true bipolar left ventricular balloon electrode array is described, which enables simultaneous unipolar and bipolar recordings. It is an adaptation of a previous clinical analog mapping system used in the investigation of ventricular arrhythmias. The bipolar balloon array consists of 112 electrode pairs, each having a 2-mm(More)
A video and multiplexing system is described that provides a source of display in real-time, slow-motion, and stop-frame modes of ventricular activation. The displayed image, consisting of a matrix of 112 dots, is arranged to represent a polar projection of the ventricles. The dots brighten at the time of local cardiac activation, which is sensed by an(More)