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Rates of reactant consumption for the Maillard reaction between lysine and glucose were measured for a noncrystallizing trehalose-sucrose-water matrix in the glass transition region. At temperatures above the glass transition temperature (T(g)), the consumption rates showed Arrhenius temperature dependence with activation energies of 135 and 140 kJ mol(-1)… (More)

Force-free magnetic fields are important in many astrophysical settings. Determining the properties of such force-free fields – especially smoothness and stability properties – is crucial to understanding many key phenomena in astrophysical plasmas, for example energy release processes that heat the plasma and lead to dynamic or explosive events. Here we… (More)

- I. J. D. Craig, R. B. Fabling
- 1998

The problem of incompressible, nonlinear magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional ‘‘open’’ geometries is considered. An analytic treatment shows that dynamic ‘‘fan current’’ reconnection may be driven by superposing long wavelength, finite amplitude, plane wave disturbances onto three-dimensional magnetic X-points. The nonlinear reconnection of the field… (More)

- I. D. Craig
- Comput. J.
- 1986

A model to account for observed solar flare statistics in terms of a superposition of independent random flaring elements (assumed to be sites of magnetic reconnection in the coronal magnetic field and hence termed ‘‘ separators ’’) is described. A separator of length l is assumed to flare as a Poisson process in time, with a rate ðlÞ inversely proportional… (More)

- I. J. D. Craig
- 2008

Context. Visco-resistive damping in line-tied magnetic X-points is examined. Aims. The goal is to determine whether fast, Alfvénic energy dissipation is possible for X-point disturbances damped by the plasma resistivity and non-isotropic viscosity. Methods. The response of X-points to planar and axial perturbations is explored numerically by solving the… (More)

Numerical simulations of highly nonlinear magnetic reconnection provide evidence of ultrathin current microsheets. These small-scale sheets are formed by strong exhaust jets from a primary large-scale current layer. The overall size of the secondary microsheet is determined by the thickness of the primary sheet. Preliminary scalings show that the thickness… (More)

Context. The role of the Hall term in magnetic reconnection at line-tied planar magnetic X-points is explored. Aims. The goal is to determine the reconnection scaling laws and to investigate how the reconnection rate depends on the size of the system in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Methods. The evolution of reconnective disturbances is determined… (More)

The power output of Ñux pile-up magnetic reconnection is known to be determined by the total hydromagnetic pressure outside the current sheet. The maximum energy-release rate is reached for optimized solutions that balance the maximum dynamic and magnetic pressures. An optimized solution is determined in this paper for a current sheet with anomalous,… (More)

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