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The accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia, allowing a more accurate adaptation of the doses of hypnotics, is an important end point for the anesthesiologist. It is a particularly crucial issue in pediatric anesthesia, in the context of the recent controversies about the potential neurological consequences of the main anesthetic drugs on the(More)
BACKGROUND Estimation of analgesia in anaesthetized children is often imprecise, and consequently, anaesthesiologists commonly evaluate children's response to surgical stimulation by movement or haemodynamic changes. In adults reflex pupillary dilatation has been demonstrated to be a very sensitive measure of noxious stimulation, correlated with opioid(More)
BACKGROUND Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anaesthesia. The efficacy of prophylactic treatment is controversial. The aim of this study was to provide a meta-analysis of the studies of the pharmacological prevention of EA in children. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials(More)
BACKGROUND In children, sevoflurane is the most commonly used anaesthetic. Its excellent haemodynamic tolerance gives it a wide therapeutic index. This halogenated agent can abolish movement [minimal alveolar concentration (MAC)] or haemodynamic responses (MACBAR) to noxious stimulus in children as in adults. Reflex pupillary dilatation (RPD) has been(More)
Sevoflurane has become the volatile agent of choice for inhalation induction of anesthesia. Hemodynamic stability and lack of respiratory irritation have justified its rapid extension to pediatric inhalation induction. The epileptogenic potential of sevoflurane has been suspected since the first case reports of abnormal movements in children without a(More)
The bispectral index (BIS TM , Aspect Medical Systems , Inc. Newton, MA) is becoming the gold standard for assessing depth of anesthesia in adult patients. Indeed, BIS values are highly correlated with the concentration of hypnotic drugs such as propofol or sevoflurane (1–8). The BIS is derived from a large database of EEG traces obtained in adult patients(More)
Anesthesia results from several inhibitor processes, which interact to lead to loss of consciousness, amnesia, immobility, and analgesia. The anesthetic agents act on the whole brain, the cortical and subcortical areas according to their receptor targets. The conscious processes are rather integrated at the level of the cortical neuronal network, while the(More)
BACKGROUND The use of the equimolecular mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide is widely recommended for relief of pain in children undergoing minor procedures. Although the benefits and adverse effects of the clinical use of nitrous oxide seem well known, its effects on the autonomic nervous system have never been studied in children. The aim of this study(More)
Spontaneous EEG has been proposed for monitoring depth of anaesthesia and adjusting anesthetic drugs doses. This review describes the main features of spontaneous EEG, the principles of EEG signal analysis used in anaesthesia, and the EEG effects of the different anesthetic drugs in adults and children. Then, the correlations between EEG parameters changes(More)
BACKGROUND A correlation has been observed between obstructive sleep events and sleep quality. The aim of the study was to assess if there is also a correlation between nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia and sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation in children. METHODS Nocturnal pulse oximetry (S(pO(2))) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (P(tcCO(2)))(More)