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A meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatments for social phobia was conducted to evaluate whether the various treatments differ in their efficacy for treating social phobia, whether they are more effective than wait-list and placebo controls, whether rates of attrition differ, and whether treatment gains are maintained at follow-up. A(More)
The relationship between eating style, attitudes towards food and food intake was investigated in 846 British adolescent schoolchildren. Eating style was assessed with the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, attitudes towards food with a series of specially prepared questions, and food intake with a diet history taken by a dietitian. The results showed(More)
Gender differences in food intake and selection first appear in adolescence. Men consume more calories than women, and the sexes have different eating styles, which indicate that women have been socialized to eat in a more feminine manner. Women experience more food-related conflict than men do, in that they like fattening foods but perceive that they(More)
This study investigated the effect of pre-exposure to two types of food cues (olfactory and cognitive) on food intake by restrained and unrestrained eaters. Subjects were exposed to either no cue, an olfactory cue, a cognitive cue or a combination of the two types of food cues for ten minutes prior to eating. Restrained eaters ate significantly more than(More)
Road traffic collisions (RTCs) are common precipitants of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two preliminary studies suggest that cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is, on average, effective in treating this disorder, although the major patterns of treatment outcome remain to be identified. Such outcomes might include treatment response, partial response,(More)
The aim of this study was to identify particular properties of foods that can affect satiety. Two levels (50 and 200 kcal) of three preloads (tomato soup, melon, cheese on crackers) were given just before two different second courses (macaroni and beef casserole, grilled cheese sandwiches), allowing us to examine the effects of caloric level, energy(More)
We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesis that childhood instrumental and vicarious learning experiences influence frequency of panic attacks in young adulthood both directly, and indirectly through their effects on anxiety sensitivity (AS). A total of 478 university students participated in a retrospective assessment of their(More)
Fifty-five eating-disordered women and 16 normal controls participated in this study to determine whether olfactory function is altered in patients with food-restricting anorexia, anorexia with bulimic features, and bulimia nervosa. Olfactory function was assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and by determining phenyl ethyl(More)
Forty-two nondieting adult males were given 8 or 16 oz of lemonade, sweetened to equal intensity with either aspartame or sucrose, or the same volumes of water, or no drink. Subjects were separated into three groups receiving the drinks at different times: with a self-selection lunch, or 30, or 60 min before lunch. Food intakes did not differ when subjects(More)
Foods differ in their satiating effects; temperature and mode of presentation may be factors important for these differences. We tested the effects of these two variables in normal weight, non-dieting males and females using vegetable juice. The juice was offered as a preload, with females receiving 300 g and males receiving 400 g under conditions that(More)
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