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PURPOSE   Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are localized regions of malformed cerebral cortex and are very frequently associated with epilepsy in both children and adults. A broad spectrum of histopathology has been included in the diagnosis of FCD. An ILAE task force proposes an international consensus classification system to better characterize specific(More)
A characteristic of nerve cells is their ability to propagate an action potential and to communicate through specialized contact zones, called synapses. Synapses have received much attention from neurobiologists over the last 40 years, after their existence was ascertained by electron microscopy (De Robertis and Bennett 1954; Palade and Palay 1954). At the(More)
The monoclonal antibody A60 specifically recognizes the DNA-binding, neuron-specific protein NeuN, which is present in most neuronal cell types of vertebrates. In this study we demonstrate the potential use of NeuN as a diagnostic neuronal marker using a wide range of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human surgical and autopsy specimens from the central(More)
Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most frequent histopathology encountered in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Over the past decades, various attempts have been made to classify specific patterns of hippocampal neuronal cell loss and correlate subtypes with postsurgical outcome. However, no international consensus about definitions(More)
Gangliogliomas represent the most frequent tumor entity in young patients suffering from chronic focal epilepsies. In a series of 326 gangliogliomas collected from the University of Bonn Epilepsy Surgery Program and other departments of neuropathology in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, epidemiological findings and histopathological hallmarks of(More)
BACKGROUND Supratentorial gangliogliomas (GGs) are rare tumors of the central nervous system and are commonly associated with chronic seizures. To date, only case reports and small series of patients with short-term follow-up have been available for the assessment of the potential of GGs to recur and progress. METHODS Data from 184 patients who underwent(More)
Ammon's horn sclerosis (AHS) is the major neuropathological substrate in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Histopathological hallmarks include segmental loss of pyramidal neurons, granule cell dispersion and reactive gliosis. Pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this distinct hippocampal pathology have not yet been identified and it remains to be(More)
One century ago, Camillo Golgi described 'perineuronal nets' enwrapping the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of certain neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system and suggested that they represent a supportive and protective scaffolding. Although other neuroanatomists validated the existence of these nets on selected neurons in the adult brain,(More)
We propose a histopathological classification system for hippocampal cell loss in patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE). One hundred and seventy-eight surgically resected specimens were microscopically examined with respect to neuronal cell loss in hippocampal subfields CA1–CA4 and dentate gyrus. Five distinct patterns were(More)
Classical paraneoplastic encephalitis syndromes with 'onconeural' antibodies directed to intracellular antigens, and the recently described paraneoplastic or non-paraneoplastic encephalitides and antibodies against both neural surface antigens (voltage-gated potassium channel-complexes, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors) and intracellular antigens (glutamic(More)