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Malaria causes an acute systemic human disease that bears many similarities, both clinically and mechanistically, to those caused by bacteria, rickettsia, and viruses. Over the past few decades, a literature has emerged that argues for most of the pathology seen in all of these infectious diseases being explained by activation of the inflammatory system,(More)
Certain cytokines, the prototype being the highly pleiotropic TNF, have many homeostatic physiological roles, are involved in innate immunity, and cause inflammation when in excess. These cytokines have long been accepted to have central roles in the pathogenesis of systemic or local non-cerebral disease states, whether acute or chronic, and whether or not(More)
The haemoprotozoan parasite, Babesia canis, is the cause of an economically important and potentially life-threatening disease of dogs in South Africa, the pathophysiology of which is incompletely understood. Available literature is reviewed, with emphasis on the pathophysiology of the anaemia and complications of babesiosis. The remainder of the review(More)
This review summarizes the origins of the insight that excess production of pro-inflammatory cytokines caused a constellation of changes that contribute to pathophysiology of disease. This connection was made following the original 1975 TNF (tumor necrosis factor) publication from New York describing how activated macrophages kill tumors. The study caught(More)
Among the unexplained changes caused by malaria in several host species, including man and mouse, are erythrophagocytosis and dyserythropoiesis. In order to see whether tumour necrosis factor (TNF) could contribute to these changes we injected recombinant human TNF intravenously into mice made very susceptible to this monokine by low density infection with(More)
Recent human trials of treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been largely unsuccessful, raising the idea that treatment may need to be started earlier in the disease, well before cognitive symptoms appear. An early marker of AD pathology is therefore needed and it is debated as to whether amyloid-βAβ? plaque load may serve this purpose. We(More)
We focus on emerging roles for microglia in synaptic plasticity, cognition and disease. We outline evidence that ramified microglia, traditionally thought to be functionally "resting" (i.e. quiescent) in the normal brain, in fact are highly dynamic and plastic. Ramified microglia continually and rapidly extend processes, contact synapses in an activity and(More)
Interleukin (IL)-11 is essential for embryo implantation in the mouse and evidence suggests it has a role in implantation in humans. This study has evaluated immunoreactive IL-11, IL-11 receptor (R) alpha and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in endometrium of infertile women with endometriosis (I/E) and normal fertile women (controls) during the(More)