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The incidence and natural history of the cavernous angioma have remained unclear in part because of the difficulty of diagnosing and following this lesion prior to surgical excision. The introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has improved the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosing and following this vascular malformation. Seventy-six lesions(More)
The natural history of cranial dural arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) is highly variable. The authors present their clinical experience with 17 dural AVM's in adults, including 10 cases with an aggressive neurological course (strictly defined as hemorrhage or progressive focal neurological deficit other than ophthalmoplegia). Two of these 10 patients(More)
The pathological correlates of subcortical lesions noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elderly are not known. Postmortem in vitro proton MRI was performed on the brains of seven consecutive elderly patients dying of nonneurologic causes. Scans were done in the fresh and fixed states with the specimen immersed in saline and formaldehyde(More)
Intracranial cavernous malformations are vascular anomalies consisting of endothelium-lined caverns filled with blood at various stages of thrombosis and organization and separated by a collagenous stroma devoid of mature vessel wall elements. They occur in an estimated 0.45 to 0.9% of the population, with male and female patients equally affected and all(More)
Stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) share common risk factors and pathological mechanisms, and coronary artery disease (CHD) is an important cause of death in patients with cerebrovascular disease. This Scientific Statement addresses issues in management of the relatively healthy patient with brain ischemia (a transient ischemic attack [TIA] or an(More)
Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a Mendelian model of stroke, characterized by focal abnormalities in small intracranial blood vessels leading to hemorrhage and consequent strokes and/or seizures. A significant fraction of cases is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. Among Hispanic Americans, virtually all CCM is(More)
Endothelial cell-cell junctions regulate vascular permeability, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis. Familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) in humans result from mutations of CCM2 (malcavernin, OSM, MGC4607), PDCD10 (CCM3), or KRIT1 (CCM1), a Rap1 effector which stabilizes endothelial cell-cell junctions. Homozygous loss of KRIT1 or CCM2 produces(More)
Electrical stimulation studies have demonstrated that a "supplementary motor area" (SMA) exists in humans. However, its precise functional organization has not been well defined. We reviewed the extraoperative electrical stimulation studies of 15 patients with intractable epilepsy who were evaluated with chronically implanted interhemispheric subdural(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this statement is to summarize data on stroke risk factors that are unique to and more common in women than men and to expand on the data provided in prior stroke guidelines and cardiovascular prevention guidelines for women. This guideline focuses on the risk factors unique to women, such as reproductive factors, and those that are more(More)
The clinical relevance of any scheme for classification of vascular malformations of the brain remains controversial. Widely accepted pathologic classifications include discrete venous, arteriovenous, capillary, and cavernous malformations. Of 280 cases of possible vascular malformations evaluated by a single cerebrovascular service during a 5-year period,(More)