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This review highlights recent evidence from clinical and basic science studies supporting a role for estrogen in neuroprotection. Accumulated clinical evidence suggests that estrogen exposure decreases the risk and delays the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, and may also enhance recovery from traumatic neurological injury such(More)
Estradiol biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme aromatase, the product of the CYP19A1 gene. Aromatase is expressed in the brain, where it is involved not only in the control of neuroendocrine events and reproduction, but also in the regulation of neural development, synaptic plasticity and cell survival. In this review we summarize the existing data(More)
Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogen has neuroprotective properties. The neuroprotective effects of estrogen are probably exerted through several mechanisms. It is established that estrogen can provide neuroprotection by actions that are independent of estrogen receptor activation. In addition, in several experimental models,(More)
The role of endogenous gonadal secretions in neuroprotection has been assessed in a model of hippocampal degeneration induced by the systemic administration of kainic acid to adult male and female rats. A low dose of kainic acid (7 mg/Kg b.w.) induced a significant loss of hilar dentate neurons in castrated males and did not affect hilar neurons in intact(More)
The ability of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors to influence glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmission has fueled interest in how these receptors and their endogenous ligands may interact in conditions of excitotoxic insults. The present study characterized the impact of stimulated and inhibited CB(1) receptor function on NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Neonatal(More)
The expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of estrogens from precursor androgens, is increased in the brain after injury, suggesting that aromatase may be involved in neuroprotection. In the present study, the effect of inactivating aromatase has been assessed in a model of neurodegeneration induced by the systemic(More)
The expression of the human cyp19 gene, encoding P450 aromatase, the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, involves alternative splicing of multiple forms of exon I regulated by different promoters. Aromatase expression has been detected in the human cerebral cortex, although the precise cellular distribution and promoter regulation are not fully(More)
Previous studies indicate that steroid hormones may be protective for Schwann cells and promote the expression of myelin proteins in the sciatic nerve of adult rats. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of progesterone (P), dihydroprogesterone (DHP), tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and(More)
The central nervous system synthesizes steroids which regulate the development and function of neurons and glia and have neuroprotective properties. The first step in this process involves the delivery of free cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it can be converted into pregnenolone. This delivery is mediated by steroidogenic acute(More)
Data from epidemiological studies suggest that the decline in estrogen following menopause could increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, experimental studies on different animal models have shown that estrogen is neuroprotective. The mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen are still unclear. Anti-oxidant effects,(More)