Learn More
This review highlights recent evidence from clinical and basic science studies supporting a role for estrogen in neuroprotection. Accumulated clinical evidence suggests that estrogen exposure decreases the risk and delays the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, and may also enhance recovery from traumatic neurological injury such(More)
Previous studies indicate that steroid hormones may be protective for Schwann cells and promote the expression of myelin proteins in the sciatic nerve of adult rats. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of progesterone (P), dihydroprogesterone (DHP), tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and(More)
Astroglia are targets for estrogen and testosterone and are apparently involved in the action of sex steroids on the brain. Sex hormones induce changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, the growth of astrocytic processes, and the degree of apposition of astroglial processes to neuronal membranes in the rat hypothalamus. These changes are(More)
Peripheral nervous system possesses both classical and non-classical steroid receptors and consequently may represent a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. The present review summarizes the state of art of this intriguing field of research reporting data which indicate that neuroactive steroids, like for instance progesterone,(More)
The enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of testosterone and other C19 steroids to estradiol. Under normal circumstances, the expression of aromatase in the central nervous system of mammals is restricted to neurons. However, the expression of the enzyme is induced in astrocytes in vitro by stressful stimuli. Furthermore, different types of brain(More)
Androgen receptors are expressed in many different neuronal populations in the central nervous system where they often act as transcription factors in the cell nucleus. However, recent studies have detected androgen receptor immunoreactivity in neuronal and glial processes of the adult rat neocortex, hippocampal formation, and amygdala as well as in the(More)
The role of endogenous gonadal secretions in neuroprotection has been assessed in a model of hippocampal degeneration induced by the systemic administration of kainic acid to adult male and female rats. A low dose of kainic acid (7 mg/Kg b.w.) induced a significant loss of hilar dentate neurons in castrated males and did not affect hilar neurons in intact(More)
The central nervous system synthesizes steroids which regulate the development and function of neurons and glia and have neuroprotective properties. The first step in this process involves the delivery of free cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it can be converted into pregnenolone. This delivery is mediated by steroidogenic acute(More)
We have previously shown that 17-beta-estradiol protects neurons in the dentate gyrus from kainic acid-induced death in vivo. To analyse whether this effect is mediated through estrogen receptors and through cross-talk between steroid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems, we have concomitantly administered antagonists of estrogen receptor (ICI(More)
Data from epidemiological studies suggest that the decline in estrogen following menopause could increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, experimental studies on different animal models have shown that estrogen is neuroprotective. The mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen are still unclear. Anti-oxidant effects,(More)