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Antipredator behavior in blackbirds: habituation complements risk allocation
Several studies showed that animals allow closer approaches (measured through flight initiation distances, FIDs) by potential predators (e.g., humans) in high--predator density areas, which has beenExpand
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Individual variation in behavioural plasticity: direct and indirect effects of boldness, exploration and sociability on habituation to predators in lizards
Little is known about the factors causing variation in behavioural plasticity and the interplay between personality and plasticity. Habituation to predators is a special case of behaviouralExpand
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Evaluation of the safe nesting zone hypothesis across an urban gradient: a multi-scale study
Urban areas have been considered ‘‘safe zones’’ for nesting birds because of low abundance of predators, and consequently low predation pressure. We studied risk of artificial ground nest predationExpand
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To run or to fly: low cost versus low risk escape strategies in blackbirds
When escaping from predators, ground-foraging birds could choose between two escape strategies with different costs: running or flying. We simulated predator attacks on blackbirds Turdus merula toExpand
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Simulating the responses of forest bird species to multi-use recreational trails
Abstract Although non-consumptive recreation can promote wildlife preservation and add socio-economic value to parks and nature reserves, such activities can have negative implications for wildlife.Expand
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Habituation to low-risk predators improves body condition in lizards
Habituation to nonlethal predation stimuli may provide benefits for animals living in areas with frequent encounters with low-risk predators. On the other hand, individuals can be very consistent inExpand
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Effects of direct human disturbance on the endemic Iberian frog Rana iberica at individual and population levels
There is widespread concern about the global decline of amphibians, but little is known about whether and how direct human disturbance might affect populations. The goal of this study was to assessExpand
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Relationships of anti-predator escape and post-escape responses with body mass and morphology: a comparative avian study
Background: Pointed and concave wingtips and shorter hind limbs make birds more vulnerable to predation. Question: Do behavioural anti-predator escape and post-escape responses compensate for theseExpand
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Avian Risk Assessment: Effects of Perching Height and Detectability
We studied two components of predator riskassessment in birds. While many species are limited to seeking safety under cover or under ground, some birds can fly away from their predators and escape toExpand
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TESTING THE RISK-DISTURBANCE HYPOTHESIS IN A FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE: NONLINEAR RESPONSES OF HOUSE SPARROWS TO HUMANS
Abstract We used House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) as a model species to assess responses to different levels of human visitation in a fragmented urban landscape. Regionally, we analyzed linear andExpand
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