Hywel T. P. Williams

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Continuous-time recurrent neural networks (CTRNNs) are potentially an excellent substrate for the generation of adaptive behaviour in artificial autonomous agents. However, node saturation effects in these networks can leave them insensitive to input and stop signals from propagating. Node saturation is related to the problems of hyper-excitation and(More)
Artificial selection of microbial ecosystems for their collective function has been shown to be effective in laboratory experiments. In previous work, we used evolutionary simulation models to understand the mechanistic basis of the observed ecosystem-level response to artificial selection. Here we extend this work to consider artificial ecosystem selection(More)
Nestedness is a statistical measure used to interpret bipartite interaction data in several ecological and evolutionary contexts, e.g. biogeography (species-site relationships) and species interactions (plant-pollinator and host-parasite networks). Multiple methods have been used to evaluate nestedness, which differ in how the metrics for nestedness are(More)
Evidence suggests that host-parasite coevolution can often result in host diversification. However, the host traits that coe-volve often have primary functions affecting growth, creating the potential for conflicting selection pressures. For example , bacteriophage often infect bacteria by binding to nutrient uptake receptors, thus diversification of(More)
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