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Quercetin is the most abundant flavonoid and is assumed to have protective roles against the pathogenesis of multiple diseases associated with oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin affects adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells. The exposure of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to quercetin resulted in(More)
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a major class of axon growth inhibitors that are up-regulated after spinal cord injury (SCI) and contribute to regenerative failure. Chondroitinase ABC (chABC) digests glycosaminoglycan chains on CSPGs and can thereby overcome CSPG-mediated inhibition. But chABC loses its enzymatic activity rapidly at 37 degrees(More)
Newly experienced events are often remembered together with how rewarding the experiences are personally. Although the hippocampus is a candidate structure where subjective values are integrated with other elements of episodic memory, it is uncertain whether and how the hippocampus processes value-related information. We examined how activity of dorsal CA1(More)
Curcumin, a polyphenol found in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, improves obesity-associated inflammation and diabetes in obese mice. Curcumin also suppresses adipocyte differentiation, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we used 3T3-L1 cells to investigate the details of the mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic effects of curcumin.(More)
The ability to successfully interface the brain to external electrical systems is important both for fundamental understanding of our nervous system and for the development of neuroprosthetics. Silicon microelectrode arrays offer great promise in realizing this potential. However, when they are implanted into the brain, recording sensitivity is lost due to(More)
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a critical role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and promotes fat mobilization in white adipose tissue. However, regulation of SIRT1 during adipogenesis, particularly through microRNAs, remains unclear. We observed that miR-146b expression was markedly increased during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Differentiation of(More)
In a dynamic environment, animals need to update information about the rewards expected from their alternative actions continually to make optimal choices for its survival. Because the reward resulting from a given action can be substantially delayed, the process of linking a reward to its causative action would be facilitated by memory signals related to(More)
Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory(More)