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The transcription and transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) are critical steps in regulating the spatial and temporal components of gene expression, but it has not been possible to observe the dynamics of endogenous mRNA in primary mammalian tissues. We have developed a transgenic mouse in which all β-actin mRNA is fluorescently labeled. We found that β-actin(More)
Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) using swept laser sources is an emerging second-generation method for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Despite the widespread use of conventional OCT for retinal disease diagnostics, until now imaging the posterior eye segment with OFDI has not been possible. Here we report the development of a highperformance(More)
We show that useful non-instantaneous nonlinear phase shifts can be obtained from cascaded quadratic processes in the presence of group velocity mismatch. The two-field nature of the process permits responses that can be effectively advanced or retarded in time with respect to one of the fields. There is an analogy to a generalized Raman-scattering effect,(More)
Understanding the dynamic axon-glial cell interaction underlying myelination is hampered by the lack of suitable imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate third harmonic generation microscopy (THGM) for label-free imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in live culture and ex vivo and in vivo tissue. A 3D structure was acquired for a variety of compact and(More)
Many studies suggest that the degradation of microtubules in the retinal ganglion cells may be an early event in the progression of glaucoma. Because reflectance and birefringence of the retinal nerve fibers arise primarily from microtubules, the optical properties have been intensively studied for early detection of the disease. We previously reported a(More)
To replace photoreceptors lost to disease or trauma and restore vision, laboratories around the world are investigating photoreceptor replacement strategies using subretinal transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) and retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). Significant obstacles to advancement of photoreceptor cell-replacement include low migration(More)
We present an application of second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for label-free visualization and quantification of the morphology of nerve fibers in the retina. We show that SHG arises from the retinal nerve fiber layer and that it is specifically associated with uniformly oriented microtubules in the axons. The utility of axonal SHG is(More)
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