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Selective blockade of nociceptive pathways represents a mechanism-based approach that has attracted a large variety of pharmacological and molecular investigations. A potential site for selective intervention is the primary afferent nociceptive nerve terminal. Binding of resiniferatoxin (RTX) to the vanilloid-1 receptor (VR1) stimulates and then inactivates(More)
Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) are key enzymes in prostaglandin biosynthesis and the target enzymes for the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To study the physiological roles of the individual isoforms, we have disrupted the mouse Ptgs1 gene encoding COX-1. Homozygous Ptgs1 mutant mice survive well, have no gastric pathology, and(More)
Mice lacking Ren1c were generated using C57BL/6-derived embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for Ren1c disruption (Ren1c-/-) are born at the expected ratio, but approximately 80% die of dehydration within a few days. The surviving Ren1c-/- mice have no renin mRNA expression in the kidney, hydronephrosis, thickening of renal arterial walls, and fibrosis in(More)
Angiotensin II causes cardiovascular injury in part by aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and it can also activate the mineralocorticoid receptor in the absence of aldosterone in vitro. Here we tested whether endogenous aldosterone contributes to angiotensin II/salt-induced cardiac, vascular, and renal injury by the mineralocorticoid(More)
For over a century, there has been intense debate as to the reason why some cardiac stresses are pathological and others are physiological. One long-standing theory is that physiological overloads such as exercise are intermittent, while pathological overloads such as hypertension are chronic. In this study, we hypothesized that the nature of the stress on(More)
IMPORTANCE Approximately one-third of military personnel who deploy for combat operations sustain 1 or more traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), which increases the risk for chronic symptoms of postconcussive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression and for the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Elevated concentrations of tau are(More)
To examine the mechanisms whereby amino acids modulate nitric oxide (NO) production and blood flow in the renal vasculature, chemiluminescence techniques were used to quantify NO in the renal venous effluent of the isolated, perfused rat kidney as different amino acids were added to the perfusate. The addition of 10(-4) or 10(-3) M cationic amino acids(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated the differential roles of apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms in modulating diabetic dyslipidemia-a potential cause of the increased cardiovascular disease risk of patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) in human apoE3 (E3) or human apoE4 (E4) mice deficient in the LDL(More)
Gene targeting experiments in mice have been used by us and others to test whether quantitative changes in gene expression in the renin-angiotensin system affect blood pressure. Surprisingly, these studies showed that blood pressure does not change with mild quantitative changes in the expression of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Yet, ACE(More)
Alpha-lipoic acid (1, 2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid; LA), synthesized in mitochondria by LA synthase (Lias), is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for metabolic enzyme complexes. In this study, we examined the effect of genetic reduction of LA synthesis on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using a model of LPS-induced inflammation in Lias+/-(More)