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The PD-1 (programmed death 1) molecule is a negative regulator of T cells. PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1) has been reported to have a genetic association in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in Caucasians. However, there are no reports on the association between this gene and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The present study investigated(More)
It has been suggested that taurine chloramine (TauCl) plays an important role in the downregulation of proinflammatory mediators. However, little is known about its effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we investigated the effects of TauCl on synovial expression of MMPs. The effects of TauCl on MMP expression in(More)
This study was performed to investigate whether synovial proliferation (SP) differentially affects hypoxia in the joint cavities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Thirty RA and 42 OA patients who underwent synovitis assessment were classified into two groups based on the presence or absence of SP, as revealed by musculoskeletal(More)
OBJECTIVES To further understand the expression regulation of MMP-1 and MMP-13 under physiological and pathological conditions, we investigated the combined effects of hypoxia and pro-inflammatory stimuli on the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. METHODS Synovial fibroblasts were cultured under either hypoxic or normoxic(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a central regulator of chronic inflammatory diseases and plays a major role in the host immune system against tuberculosis (TB). TNF antagonists, infliximab and etanercept are effective in treating chronic inflammatory diseases by inhibiting TNF, but increase the risk of TB as a result of immunosuppression. Previous studies(More)
This study was performed to provide evidence, albeit indirectly, as to which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), among the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the collagenases MMP-1 and MMP-13, play a more proactive role in the angiogenic process in arthritic joint. Joint fluid was collected from 33 patients with rhuematoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA),(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in the physiology of vasculature, blood pressure and inflammation. ACE gene, known to have insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, has been widely investigated in its relation with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and longevity. ACE gene polymorphism in an inflammation associated(More)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily involving the spine and sacroiliac joint and rarely the kidneys. This study aimed to define the clinical and histological features and biology of renal disease in AS. We reviewed the medical records of 681 patients diagnosed with AS from November 2008 to November 2009. Baseline(More)
This study was performed to evaluate the contribution of adiponectin to the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-13 in human endothelial cells and osteoblasts in arthritic joints. Cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and osteoblasts were stimulated(More)
BACKGROUND KHU14, an ethanolic extract of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae (Qinjiao), Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian) and Citri Unshiu Pericarpium (Wenzhou migan) was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects. METHODS Three out of 20 herbs were found to have anti-inflammatory effects. The formulation of these herbs, i.e. KHU14 was tested for croton oil-induced(More)