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OBJECTIVE The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational(More)
OBJECTIVE Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of numerous processes in multiple cell types relevant in stroke pathophysiology. ROCK inhibitors have improved outcome in experimental models of acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. However, the relevant ROCK isoform (ROCK1 or ROCK2) in acute stroke is not known. METHODS We characterized the(More)
Complement component C4 mediates C3-dependent tissue damage after systemic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Activation of C3 also contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental and human traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, few data exist regarding the specific pathways (classic, alternative, and lectin) involved. Using complement knockout mice and a(More)
BACKGROUND To develop a plant-based vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, two P. vivax candidate proteins were chosen. First, the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), a major asexual blood stage antigen that is currently considered a strong vaccine candidate. Second, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a component of sporozoites that contains a B-cell epitope.(More)
BACKGROUND Rho GTPase and its downstream target, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), have been implicated in diverse cardiovascular diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy. However, pharmacological inhibitors of ROCK are not entirely specific, nor can they discriminate between the ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2. To determine the specific role of ROCK1 in the(More)
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator that exerts multiple cellular functions through activation of a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. Although there is evidence that S1P plays a role in the developing and adult CNS, little is known about the ability of brain parenchyma to synthesize this lipid. We have therefore analyzed the brain(More)
The expanded CAG repeat that causes striatal cell vulnerability in Huntington's disease (HD) encodes a polyglutamine tract in full-length huntingtin that is correlated with cellular [ATP] and [ATP/ADP]. Since striatal neurons are vulnerable to energy deficit, we have investigated, in Hdh CAG knock-in mice and striatal cells, the hypothesis that decreased(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium vivax is divided into two subtypes, a dominant form, VK210 and a variant form, VK247. This division is dependent on the amino acid composition of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein. In this study, the prevalence of the VK247 variant form of P. vivax was investigated in Myanmar. METHODS The existence of malaria parasites in blood(More)
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) initiates complement activation and exacerbates tissue damage after systemic ischemia/reperfusion. We tested the hypothesis that MBL activates complement and worsens outcome using two levels of controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. After moderate CCI (0.6 mm depth), MBL immunostaining was detected on injured endothelial(More)
We previously reported that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and Fas receptor induce acute cellular injury, tissue damage, and motor and cognitive deficits after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice (Bermpohl et al. 2007 ); however, the TNF receptors (TNFR) involved are unknown. Using a CCI model and novel mutant mice deficient in TNFR1/Fas,(More)