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The PmrA/PmrB regulatory system of Salmonella enterica controls the modification of lipid A with aminoarabinose and phosphoethanolamine. The aminoarabinose modification is required for resistance to the antibiotic polymyxin B, as mutations of the PmrA-activated pbg operon or ugd gene result in strains that lack aminoarabinose in their lipid A molecules and(More)
A theory of electron counting statistics in quantum transport is presented. It involves an idealized scheme of current measurement using a spin 1/2 coupled to the current so that it precesses at the rate proportional to the current. Within such an approach, counting charge without breaking the circuit is possible. As an application, we derive the counting(More)
Bacterial populations contain persisters, cells which survive exposure to bactericidal antibiotics and other lethal factors. Persisters do not have a genetic resistance mechanism, and their means to tolerate killing remain unknown. In exponentially growing populations of Escherichia coli the frequency of persister formation usually is 10(-7) to 10(-5). It(More)
During inhalational anthrax, Bacillus anthracis survives and replicates in alveolar macrophages, followed by rapid invasion into the host's bloodstream, where it multiplies to cause heavy bacteremia. B. anthracis must therefore defend itself from host immune functions encountered during both the intracellular and the extracellular stages of anthrax(More)
Proliferation of bacterial pathogens in blood represents one of the most dangerous stages of infection. Growth in blood serum depends on the ability of a pathogen to adjust metabolism to match the availability of nutrients. Although certain nutrients are scarce in blood and need to be de novo synthesized by proliferating bacteria, it is unclear which(More)
In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system (TCS) encoded by the saePQRS operon controls expression of major virulence factors, such as coagulase and alpha-hemolysin. The saePQRS operon has two promoters: P1 and P3. The P1 promoter, a strong promoter, is autoinduced and can transcribe all four genes. Compared with P1, P3 shows fairly low but(More)
Isolation of bacterial mutants hypersusceptible to antibiotics can reveal novel targets for antibiotic potentiators. However, identification of such mutants is a difficult task which normally requires laborious replica plating of thousands of colonies. The technique proposed here allows for the positive selection of genetic knockout mutants leading to(More)
We have developed a new microarray-based genetic technique, named MGK (Monitoring of Gene Knockouts), for genome-wide identification of conditionally essential genes. MGK identified bacterial genes that are critical for fitness in the absence of aromatic amino acids, and was further applied to identify genes whose inactivation causes bacterial cell death(More)
It is well known that a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affect women and there has been much attention directed toward understanding why this is the case. Past research has revealed a number of sex differences in autoimmune responses that can account for the female bias in MS. However, much less is known about(More)