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Protocadherins (PCDHs) consist of the largest subgroup of the cadherin superfamily, and most PCDHs are expressed dominantly in the CNS. Because PCDHs are involved in the homophilic cell-cell adhesion, PCDHs in the nervous system have been suggested to play roles in the formation and maintenance of the synaptic connections. Although many PCDHs (>50) are in(More)
The solution structure of the tumor suppressor p16INK4A has been determined by NMR, and important recognition regions of both cdk4 and p16INK4A have been identified. The tertiary structure of p16INK4A contains four helix-turn-helix motifs linked by three loops. Twelve tumorigenic mutants of p16INK4A have been constructed and analyzed for their structure and(More)
Epigenetic modification such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation plays essential roles in many aspects of cellular function and development of animals. There is an increasing amounts of evidence for dynamic changes in the histone acetylation of specific gene segments, but little attempt was made to examine global pattern changes in the histone(More)
BACKGROUND Gastric cancer with bone marrow metastases is known to pursue a rapidly deteriorating clinical course. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate clinical manifestations and prognosis of gastric cancer patients with bone marrow metastases. METHODS Between September 1994 and February 2006, 39 gastric cancer patients with pathologically(More)
Understanding the structural organization of organs and organisms at the cellular level is a fundamental challenge in biology. This task has been approached by reconstructing three-dimensional structure from images taken from serially sectioned tissues, which is not only labor-intensive and time-consuming but also error-prone. Recent advances in tissue(More)
Phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (Phactr4) is a newly discovered protein that inhibits protein phosphatase 1 and shows actin-binding activity. We previously found that Phactr4 is expressed in the neurogenic niche in adult mice, although its precise subcellular localization and possible function in neural stem cells (NSCs) is not yet understood. Here, we(More)
An automated voxel-based analysis of brain images using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is accepted as a standard approach in the analysis of activation studies in positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. This study aimed to investigate whether or not SPM would increase the diagnostic yield of ictal brain single-photon(More)
In the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult mouse hippocampus, a substantial number of new cells are generated daily, but only a subset of these survive and differentiate into mature neurons, whereas the majority undergo programmed cell death (PCD). However, neither the intracellular machinery required for adult stem cell-derived neuronal death nor the(More)
Mitochondria are essential for proper neuronal morphogenesis and functions, as they are the major source of energy for neural development. The dynamic morphology of mitochondria determines the key functions of mitochondria. Several regulatory proteins such as dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) are required to maintain mitochondrial morphology via a balance(More)
Reactive astrocytes greatly influence the wound healing and neuronal regeneration processes following brain injury. However, the origin and fate of reactive astrocytes appear to be different depending on the type, severity and duration of brain injury. Using the cryogenic traumatic brain injury model, here we comprehensively addressed the regional(More)