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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and platelet-activating factor (PAF) are important mediators of inflammatory reactions, and their release is controlled by a positive feedback network. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two molecules are unknown. Within 10 min of the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into C57BL/6(More)
In brain, the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its endogenous inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have been implicated in the regulation of various neurophysiological and pathological responses. In this study, we investigated the differential role of neurons and astrocytes in the regulation of tPA/PAI-1 activity in(More)
The effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on experimental pulmonary metastasis by the B16F10 murine melanoma and the possible involvement of PAF in the activities of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1alpha (IL-1alpha) in tumor metastasis were investigated. i.p. injection of PAF enhanced the lung colonization in a dose- and(More)
In response to brain insults, microglia, the resident inflammatory cells in CNS, migrate into injured sites to initiate inflammatory responses in brain. ATP, released from apoptotic or necrotic cells induce chemoattractive responses but the mechanism is not clear yet. In this study, we investigated whether ATP modulates microglial migration by regulating(More)
The role of protease-activated receptor (PARs) in the regulation of microglial activation process is increasingly evident. In the present study, we have investigated the role of PAR-2, which can be activated by trypsin-like proteases, in microglial activation and neuronal cell death. In cultured rat primary microglia, activation of PAR-2 induced nitrite(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) that acts as a neuromodulator in various neurophysiological and pathological conditions. Several researchers including us reported the induction of PAI-1 during inflammatory condition; however, the mechanism regulating PAI-1 induction is not yet clear.(More)
Activated microglia participate in neuroinflammation which contribute to neuronal damage. Suppression of microglial activation would have therapeutic benefits, which lead to alleviation of the progression of neurodegeneration. In this study, the inhibitory effects of inflexin, a putative antiinflammatory agent isolated from Isodon excisus (Max.) Kudo(More)
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is expressed in several regions of brain and plays regulatory roles such as neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation. The activity of tPA is regulated by an endogenous inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is expressed mainly in astrocytes. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone(More)
The development of the mandibular condylar cartilage is important for the overall growth of the mandible. However, there have been a few researches into medical approaches aimed at controlling condylar growth. This study examined the effects of bisphosphonate on the growth of the condylar cartilage. Alendronate (3.5 mg/kg/week) was administered to postnatal(More)