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We study the importance of uncertainty and public finance to the welfare ranking of three environmental policy instruments: pollution taxes, pollution permits and Kyoto-like numerical rules for emissions. The setup is the basic stochastic neoclassical growth model augmented with the assumptions that pollution occurs as a by-product of output produced and(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSPs), molecular chaperones that assist in protein folding, have become a research focus in Parkinson's disease (PD) since the pathogenesis of PD is characterized by intracellular protein misfolding and inclusion body formation. This study investigated the effect of the knockout (KO) of the Hsp70.1 (approved gene symbol Hspa1b) gene on(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and sporadic acute viral hepatitis worldwide. This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in a Korean population and compared the performance of two commercially available anti-HEV assays. METHODS A total 147 health-check examinees were randomly sampled as matched(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Intestinal metaplasia (IM) has been regarded as a premalignant condition. This study evaluated the role of the transforming factor CDX2 according to the severity and type of IM. METHODS This analysis was performed on 383 subjects with IM in the antrum and/or body, with diagnoses that were categorized as controls, dysplasias, and gastric(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Researches on the potential risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis have been conducted extensively, however, the results are conflicting. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify the prevalence rate and risk factors of erosive esophagitis and their interactions with residency status. METHODS A total of 4,023(More)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is considered the most common prostate disease in elderly men. Recent studies have suggested that specific polymorphisms might be contributed to risk factors for development of BPH. The aim of present study is to investigate whether promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of dual therapy consisting of esomeprazole and amoxicillin as a rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS From December 2009 to August 2010, 21 patients who experienced two consecutive eradication failures were included. They received esomeprazole (40(More)
Although alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance, disease activity may also increase AFP levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Since nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy may reduce not only HBV viral loads and transaminase levels but also the falsely elevated AFP levels in CHB, we tried to(More)
It is now well known that a simple graph C *-algebra C * (E) of a directed graph E is either AF or purely infinite. In this paper, we address the question of whether this is the case for labeled graph C *-algebras recently introduced by Bates and Pask as one of the generalizations of graph C *-algebras, and show that there exists a family of simple unital(More)