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The symmetric space sine-Gordon models arise by conformal reduction of ordinary 2-dim σ-models, and they are integrable exhibiting a black-hole type metric in target space. We provide a Lagrangian formulation of these systems by considering a triplet of Lie groups F ⊃ G ⊃ H. We show that for every symmetric space F/G, the generalized sine-Gordon models can(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE The appearance of lip wrinkles is problematic if it is adversely influenced by lipstick make-up causing incomplete color tone, spread phenomenon and pigment remnants. It is mandatory to develop an objective assessment method for lip wrinkle status by which the potential of wrinkle-improving products to lips can be screened. The present(More)
We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all.(More)
This is a case of a sudden cardio-pulmonary arrest in a 29 year-old female, which occurred immediately after a large bolus infusion of propofol (100 mg) intravenously during dilatation and curettage. The arrest suddenly occurred, and the patient was eventually transferred to our emergency room (ER) on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At that time, severe(More)
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. Many studies documented that it was related to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and neurologic diseases. Although knowledge of hyponatremia has been cumulated, the optimal management of hyponatremia remains incompletely(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES For accurate measurement of pH, urine collection under oil to limit the escape of CO(2) on air exposure is recommended. This study aims to test the hypothesis that urine collection under oil is not necessary in acidic urine in which bicarbonate and CO(2) are minor buffers, because loss of CO(2) would have little effect on its pH.(More)
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