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The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is initiated by processing long double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNA (siRNA). The siRNA-generating enzyme was purified from Drosophila S2cells and consists of two stoichiometric subunits: Dicer-2(DCR-2) and a previously unknown protein that we named R2D2. R2D2 is homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi(More)
Fibrillar protein aggregates are the major pathological hallmark of several incurable, age-related, neurodegenerative disorders. These aggregates typically contain aggregation-prone pathogenic proteins, such as amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease and alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease. It is, however, poorly understood how these aggregates are formed(More)
A small molecule, alpha-(trichloromethyl)-4-pyridineethanol (PETCM), was identified by high-throughput screening as an activator of caspase-3 in extracts of a panel of cancer cells. PETCM was used in combination with biochemical fractionation to identify a pathway that regulates mitochondria-initiated caspase activation. This pathway consists of tumor(More)
Defects in mitochondrial metabolism have been increasingly linked with age-onset protein-misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. In response to protein-folding stress, compartment-specific unfolded protein responses (UPRs) within the ER, mitochondria, and cytosol work in parallel to ensure cellular protein homeostasis. While(More)
During neurodegenerative disease, the toxic accumulation of aggregates and misfolded proteins is often accompanied with widespread changes in peripheral metabolism, even in cells in which the aggregating protein is not present. The mechanism by which the central nervous system elicits a distal reaction to proteotoxic stress remains unknown. We hypothesized(More)
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