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The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is initiated by processing long double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNA (siRNA). The siRNA-generating enzyme was purified from Drosophila S2cells and consists of two stoichiometric subunits: Dicer-2(DCR-2) and a previously unknown protein that we named R2D2. R2D2 is homologous to the Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi(More)
Fibrillar protein aggregates are the major pathological hallmark of several incurable, age-related, neurodegenerative disorders. These aggregates typically contain aggregation-prone pathogenic proteins, such as amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease and alpha-synuclein in Parkinson's disease. It is, however, poorly understood how these aggregates are formed(More)
Apoptosis in metazoans is executed by a group of intracellular proteases named caspases. One of the caspase-activating pathways in mammals is initiated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, where it binds to Apaf-1 to form a procaspase-9-activating heptameric protein complex named apoptosome. We report here the reconstitution of this(More)
A small molecule, alpha-(trichloromethyl)-4-pyridineethanol (PETCM), was identified by high-throughput screening as an activator of caspase-3 in extracts of a panel of cancer cells. PETCM was used in combination with biochemical fractionation to identify a pathway that regulates mitochondria-initiated caspase activation. This pathway consists of tumor(More)
Defects in mitochondrial metabolism have been increasingly linked with age-onset protein-misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. In response to protein-folding stress, compartment-specific unfolded protein responses (UPRs) within the ER, mitochondria, and cytosol work in parallel to ensure cellular protein homeostasis. While(More)
The process of amyloid-β (Aβ) fibril formation is genetically and pathologically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, a selective and sensitive method for quantifying Aβ fibrils in complex biological samples allows a variety of hypotheses to be tested. Herein, we report the basis for a quantitative in vitro kinetic aggregation assay that detects(More)
During apoptosis, cytochrome c is released from mitochondria to the cytosol, where it binds Apaf-1. The Apaf-1/cytochrome c complex then oligomerizes either into heptameric caspase-9-activating apoptosome, which subsequently activates caspase-3 and caspase-7, or bigger inactive aggregates, depending on the availability of nucleotide dATP/ATP. A tumor(More)
We demonstrate a tabletop holographic display system for simultaneously serving continuous parallax 3.2-inch 360-degree three-dimensional holographic image content to multiple observers at a 45-degree oblique viewing circumference. To achieve this, localized viewing windows are to be seamlessly generated on the 360-degree viewing circumference. In the(More)
During neurodegenerative disease, the toxic accumulation of aggregates and misfolded proteins is often accompanied with widespread changes in peripheral metabolism, even in cells in which the aggregating protein is not present. The mechanism by which the central nervous system elicits a distal reaction to proteotoxic stress remains unknown. We hypothesized(More)
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