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Multiple dose administration of methamphetamine (MA) results in long-lasting toxic effects in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. These effects are considered to be primarily due to oxidative damage mediated by increased production of hydrogen peroxide or other reactive oxygen species in the dopaminergic system. The present study was designed to(More)
In order to evaluate the putative role of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) in the antioxidant defense mechanism during the neurodegenerative process, we examined the level of mRNA, the specific activity and immunocytochemical distribution for SOD-1 in the rat hippocampus after systemic injection of kainic acid (KA). Hippocampal SOD-1 mRNA levels were(More)
Several studies have shown that dextromethorphan (DM) has both anticonvulsant and proconvulsant effects depending on the animal model. In this study, we examined the effects of DM on three parameters associated with kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures: cell loss in the hippocampus, increased AP-1 DNA binding activity and increased c-Jun and fos-related(More)
We examined the immunocytochemical distribution of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) in the rat hippocampus after systemic injection of kainic acid (KA), in order to understand SOD-2-responsible antioxidant defense mechanism during the neurodegenerative process. SOD-2 immunostaining was more intense in CA3 pyramidal neurons than in CA1 neurons(More)
We have isolated a cDNA, from the chicken, that encodes a fourth type of gamma subunit of the vertebrate brain GABAA receptor. The mature polypeptide (which we name gamma 4) displays 67%, 69% and 70% identity, respectively, to the rat gamma 1, gamma 2 and gamma 3 subunits. In the developing chicken brain, the gamma 4-subunit mRNA is first detected at(More)
The present study was designed to understand the role of an antioxidant, selenium (Se) on methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic cell damage in the substantia nigra (SN). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either selenium-deficient (<0.01 ppm Se) or selenium-replete (0.2 ppm Se) diet for 90 days. Se-deficiency potentiates MA-induced reductions of tyrosine(More)
Dextromethorphan (DM) at supra-antitussive doses might produce psychotomimetic effects in humans. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the behavior induced by DM, we examined the effects of DM on cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and locomotor pattern in mice, and Fos-related antigen immunoreactivity (FRA-IR) in(More)
We have recently reported that dextromethorphan attenuates the neurotoxicity induced by kainic acid in a dose-related fashion. Pretreatments with dextromethorphan (50 mg/kg, p.o. x2) significantly reduced the activator protein-1 DNA-binding activity and the Fos-related antigen-immunoreactive protein induced by kainic acid (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the CA1, but(More)
Zizyphi Spinosi Semen (ZSS) has been widely used for the treatment of insomnia in oriental countries. This experiment was performed to investigate whether sanjoinine A, one of major alkaloid compounds of ZSS, has hypnotic effects and/or enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Sanjoinine A(More)
Aging may be an important factor affecting brain injury by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we investigated the responses of glial cells and monocytes to intracerebral hemorrhage in normal and aged rats. ICH was induced by microinjecting autologous whole blood (15 microL) into the striatum of young (4 month old) and aged (24 month old)(More)