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Previously we reported that immunostimulated astrocytes were highly vulnerable to glucose deprivation. The augmented death was mimicked by the peroxynitrite (ONOO )-producing reagent 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). Here we show that glucose deprivation and ONOO- synergistically deplete intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and augment the death of(More)
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive free-radical release is likely implicated in the initiation and progression of epilepsy. Therefore, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress have received considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. However, much evidence suggests that oxidative stress does not always have the same pattern in all(More)
Multiple dose administration of methamphetamine (MA) results in long-lasting toxic effects in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. These effects are considered to be primarily due to oxidative damage mediated by increased production of hydrogen peroxide or other reactive oxygen species in the dopaminergic system. The present study was designed to(More)
We previously demonstrated that kainic acid (KA)-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress contributed to hippocampal degeneration and that ginsenosides attenuated KA-induced neurotoxicity and neuronal degeneration. Here, we examined whether ginsenosides affected KA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. Treatment with(More)
In this study, we investigated the effects of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor agonists on the methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in mice. Repeated treatment with methamphetamine at a dose of 1 mg/kg for 7 days induced an impairment of recognition memory. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, ameliorated the repeated(More)
Methylphenidate (MP) has become the primary drug of choice for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, its psychotropic effects severely hamper long-term clinical use. We evaluated the effects of YY162, which consists of terpenoid-strengthened Ginkgo biloba and ginsenoside Rg3, on the ADHD-like condition induced by(More)
We showed that dextromethorphan (DM) provides neuroprotective/anticonvulsant effects and that DM and its major metabolite, dextrorphan, have a high-affinity for sigma(1) receptors, but a low affinity for sigma(2) receptors. In addition, we found that DM has a higher affinity than DX for sigma(1) sites, whereas DX has a higher affinity than DM for PCP sites.(More)
Nicotine replacement treatments are being alternatively applied as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy. However, the effects of nicotine exposed at the prenatal stage on the emotional behaviors in offspring are not well understood due to the lack of systematic investigations. The current study has therefore initially aimed to evaluate emotional(More)
Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor with anti-Parkinsonian effects, but it is metabolized to amphetamines. Since another MAO-B inhibitor N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE) is not metabolized to amphetamines, we examined whether MPPE induces behavioral side effects and whether MPPE affects dopaminergic toxicity induced by(More)
Recently, we showed that the 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), an active ingredient of Panax ginseng, inhibits rat brain NaV1.2 channel peak currents (INa). Batrachotoxin (BTX) is a steroidal alkaloid neurotoxin and activates NaV channels through interacting with transmembrane domain-I-segment 6 (IS6) of channels. Recent report shows that ginsenoside inhibits(More)