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Semaphorins are axon guidance factors that assist growing axons in finding appropriate targets and forming synapses. Emerging evidence suggests that semaphorins are involved not only in embryonic development but also in immune responses. Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A; also known as CD108), which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored semaphorin, promotes axon(More)
Semaphorins and their receptors have diverse functions in axon guidance, organogenesis, vascularization and/or angiogenesis, oncogenesis and regulation of immune responses. The primary receptors for semaphorins are members of the plexin family. In particular, plexin-A1, together with ligand-binding neuropilins, transduces repulsive axon guidance signals for(More)
Commissural axon guidance requires complex modulations of growth cone sensitivity to midline-derived cues, but underlying mechanisms in vertebrates remain largely unknown. By using combinations of ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we uncovered a molecular pathway controlling the gain of response to a midline repellent, Semaphorin3B (Sema3B). First, we provide(More)
The class IV semaphorin Sema4A provides a costimulatory signal to T cells. To investigate the possible developmental and regulatory roles of Sema4A in vivo, we generated Sema4A-deficient mice. Although Sema4A-deficient mice develop normally, DCs and T cells from knockout mice display poor allostimulatory activities and T helper cell (Th) differentiation,(More)
Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic plaque leads to acceleration of plaque growth through increased leukocyte infiltration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Sema4D (CD100), a class IV semaphorin, not only plays a crucial role in axon guidance but also functions in the neovascularization process of tumor growth. To clarify the roles(More)
Podosomes are recently rediscovered highly dynamic actin-rich structural and functional modules that form close contact with the surrounding substrate. They play a role in the control of migration, tissue invasion, and matrix remodeling of highly motile cells, including lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts. In osteoclasts, the(More)
Co-receptors on the B-cell surface regulate B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling; however, it remains unclear how BCR signals are coordinated to maintain immune homeostasis. CD72, a negative regulator of B-cell responses, has immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs within its cytoplasmic region, and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 binds these(More)
The recirculation of leukocytes is essential for proper immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the entry of leukocytes into the lymphatics remain unclear. Here we show that plexin-A1, a principal receptor component for class III and class VI semaphorins, was crucially involved in the entry of dendritic cells (DCs) into the(More)
Semaphorins and their receptors play crucial roles not only in axon guidance during neuronal development but also in the regulation of immune responses. Plexin-A4, a member of the plexin-A subfamily, forms a receptor complex with neuropilins and transduces signals for class III semaphorins in the nervous system. Although plexin-A4 is also expressed in the(More)
The cardiac neural crest, a subpopulation of the neural crest, contributes to the cardiac outflow tract formation during development. However, how it follows the defined long-range migratory pathway remains unclear. We show here that the migrating cardiac neural crest cells (NCCs) express Plexin-A2, Plexin-D1 and Neuropilin. The membrane-bound ligands for(More)